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head. Out of the cover there rises the sun with the head and arms of a man, and in each hand he holds j cinch, "life." {Papyrus of Ani, pi. 8.) On papyri and coffins of a later period the jars are shown arranged in a row under the bier. In the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead the four gods are shown standing in the mummy chamber, one at each corner; the inscriptions which refer to them read :—

met' an Mes0a nuk Mesfla se - k Ausar Speech of


Says Mestha, "/ am Mestha son thy, O Osiris.

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1 - a un - a em sau - k serut - na

Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Make to flourish I

pa - k men sep sen utu en Ptah ma utu en house thy, firm, firm, hath commanded Ptah, as commanded

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tep at - k hui nek Xefta - k

head and limbs thy, smiting down for thee enemies thy

xer - k erta - na nek tep t'etta beneath thee. Give I to thee head [thy] for ever."

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em ta ari nek nek - f ta - a su

not allowing to be done to thee destruction his. Place I it

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se - k Ausar son thy Osiris.

temt - a

Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Gather together 1


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un - a em sau

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/ //mac thy, bring I for thee

ab - k ta - a nek su her auset - f em ^at - k heart thy, place I for thee it upon seat its in body thy,

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The inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, which arc sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, vary considerably; some consist of a few words only, but others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess; thus Isis guarded Mestha, Nephthys guarded Hapi, Neith guarded Tuamautef, and Selket or Serqet guarded Qebhsennuf. The following are examples of the formulae inscribed on these jars :—1

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sam - a t'et setep-a "Conquer I the foe, make I

met' an Auset
Says Isis,

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Speech of

am - a sa

in me. The protection of


Ausar sa Amsef? Ausar Amsefl

Osiris [is] the protection of Amseth, [for] Osiris [is] Amseth."

1 These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889; they were made for the commander of soldiers

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Nefer ab-Ra-em-xut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta ta

nuh-hetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, 1st Series, pi. 114. 3 Here follow the name and titles of the deceased.

Speech of met' an Nebt-het hap - a se^eta ari - a

Nephthys- Says Nephthys, "Hide I ihe secret thing, make I

bessa her Hapi enti am - a sa protection over Hapi who is in me. The protection of

j— - sua j— ^ sua

Ausar sa Hapi Ausar pu Hapi

Osiris [is] the protection of Hapi, [for] Osiris [is] Hapi."

III. TUAMAUTE, ]-| "7jj P*^5

Speech of niet' an Net setua - a

Neith. . .

•i(i}\r Nettn, "Makepass the morning I,

semaser - a hru neb her ari maket en

make pass the night I of day every in making the protection of

Tuamautef enti am - a sa Ausar

Tuamautef which is in me. The protection of Osiris

sa Tuamautef Ausar pu Tuamautef

[is] the protection of Tuamautef [for] Osiris [is] Tuamautef"

IV. QliBHSENNUF. "j"^ 1 |1<^> o » Jlj^

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sa - a hru neb an maket en Qebh-sennu-f "protection my day every in making protection of Qebh-sennu-f

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Frequently the first parts of these inscriptions read, Variant

dm-d. "I embrace with my two arms that which is in me;" the variants for A Q V\ being (1 ® ( / se^e* and fl*^-^1 * frequently also they only contain the names and titles of the deceased preceded by the words ^ (JO ® Xfr "watchfully devoted to," which are followed by the names of the four gods. Often the same formula is repeated on all four jars.

Chests For Canopic Jars.

The chests, or coffers, which held Canopic jars were made of wood, and were usually painted black; they were fitted on a kind of sledge with two runners, the ends of which were rounded. They are about two feet square. On one end are traced in outline figures of Neith and Serqet, and on the other Isis and Nephthys; on the one side are Mestha and Hapi, and on the other Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf. By the side of each god is inscribed the formula which is given in the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead, and by the side of each goddess is inscribed the formula which is found on Canopic vases. (Excellent examples of chests on sledges are Nos. 8543a, and 8543^, 3rd Egyptian Room, British Museum.) The inside of the chest is divided into four equal spaces by wooden partitions, and in each stood a jar. The use of such chests is certainly as old as the Xllth dynasty.

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