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a different coloured substance; on one side is a full-face figure of Bes, and on the other an ape. It came from Der el-bahari.
A set of four or more kohl tubes were also formed by the compartments of a wooden box which was generally inlaid with ivory. The studs in kohl tubes were used for fastening the cover.
The stick with which the kohl was applied to the eyes was The kohl made of wood, bronze, glass, etc., and was thicker and more rounded at one end than at the other. The thick end was moistened, and dipped in the powder in the tube, and then drawn along the eyelid; the stick generally remained in the tube, but often a special cavity, either between or behind the tubes, was prepared for it.
The black powder in the tube was called in Egyptian
fliP^S <var- fllP^^Srrl TM*'w>.coPt.
COHJUL, CTHJUL, Arab. J*»S> whence the word Kohl, Gr. arififii, stibium; it seems to have been the sesquisulphuret of antimony, but sulphide of lead, oxide of copper, J ° black oxide of manganese, and other powdered substances were also used. The act of painting the eyes with kohl was called
P'=^' ~o~°~° sem-et' anc* tne Part Pamtea< y1 setnti. The custom of painting the eyelids, or the parts immediately under them, is contemporary with the earliest dynasties, Antiquity and we know that in the Xllth dynasty1 mestchem was of eye- brought from the land of Absha, by people of the Aamu, paint. as an acceptable gift to the king of Egypt. This custom seems to have been common all over the East, and it will be remembered that Jezebel "set her eyes in stibium" 2 Kings ix. 30), and that the daughter of Zion was told that her lovers would seek her life, even though "she rent asunder her eyes with stibium,"* in allusion to the wide open appearance which stibium gives to women's eyes in the East.
Oils, unguents, scents, etc., were kept in alabaster, diorite and porphyry jars, or vases, of various shapes, 0 =0° 'O U \ ^7Sets of alabaster jars and flat vessels were arranged on a table in the tomb, and sometimes contained unguents, sweetmeats, etc., and sometimes were merely votive offerings. A fine example of a votive set in alabaster is (B.M. No. 4694) Alabaster inscribed with the name Atena, from Abydos, which com^^§of prises a wide mouthed jar on a stand, five smaller jars with pointed ends, and four flat saucers, the whole standing on a circular table of the same material. The shapes of the jars are of great beauty, and the alabaster is of the finest The custom of placing alabaster jars in tombs is, at least, as ancient as the IVth dynasty, and it lasted until the XXVIth dynasty; examples are known inscribed with the names of Unas (B.M. No. 4602), Pepi I. (B.M. No. 22559), Mentuem-sa-f (B.M. No. 4493), Amasis I. (B.M. No. 467la), Thothmes III. (B.M. No. 4498), Amenophis II. (B.M. No. 4672), Rameses II. (B.M. No. 2880), Queen Amenartas (B.M. No. 4701), etc.
Necklaces, Rings, Bracelets, Etc
Judging by the enormous quantity of beads which are found in Egyptian tombs, Egyptian ladies must have thought very highly of the necklace as an ornament. Beads are of all shapes, round, rectangular, oval, and oblong, and were made of
1 In the sixth year of Usertsen II. The scene of the presentation of the mestchem is painted on the walls of the tomb of Chnemu-hetep at Beni-Hasan; see Lepsius, Denkmaler, II. ff. 131-133.
1 'T'TV. "=r>s? ,,3ni?rp? Jeremiah iv- 3°
mother-of-emerald, carnelian, agate, lapis-lazuli, amethyst,
rock crystal, onyx, jasper, garnet, gold, silver, glass, faience,
clay, and straw. The necklace was ornamented with pendants Egyptian
made in the form of figures of the gods, or of animals sacred to them, or of amulets to which magical powers were attributed. Each kind of stone was supposed to possess special properties, and the Egyptians arranged their necklaces in such a way that the wearer was supposed to be protected from the attack of all evil powers and baneful beasts. Breasts of mummies and mummy cases are painted in imitation of rows of beads of various precious stones, or of collars made of beads, interspersed with pendants in the shape of flowers, etc.
Rings were made of gold, silver, bronze, precious stones or faience; sometimes the bezels were solid and did not move, sometimes they were inlaid with scarabs, inscribed with various devices, or the name of the wearer, and revolved. During the XVIIIth dynasty, a very pretty class of ring was made at Tell el-Amarna, in blue, green, and purple glazed faience; examples are very numerous, and every Egyptian collection of importance contains several.
Bracelets were made of gold or silver, and were at times inlaid with precious stones and coloured paste; after the XXVIth dynasty the ends of bracelets, owing to Phoenician influence, terminated in lions' heads.
Scarab,1 or Scarabzeus,* is the name given by Egyptolo- Descripgists to the myriads of models of a certain beetle, which are Egyptian found in mummies and tombs, and in the ruins of temples and beetle, other buildings in Egypt and other countries, the inhabitants
1 Scarab, from the Greek wtapafioc, or oxapafltioQ, perhaps a transcription of the
Latin scarabaeus; compare JjjvofKOv, a transcription of denarius. The Copts called
* s o / ^ y
this beetle and the Arabs "LujLxri-, plur. ^jUu>-,
Jjis>-, P'ur- (j^ujj- and Plllr- See also Payne Smith,
Thes. Syr., col. 1188, and Duval, Lex. Syr., col. 714.
s The old plural scarabees we find in "You are scarabees that batten in dung." Elder Brother, Beaumont and Fletcher.
of which from a remote period had trading and other relations with the Egyptians. The beetle which was copied by the Egyptians in this manner belongs to the family called by naturalists Scarabceidtz (Coprophagi), of which the Scarabceus sacer is the type. These insects compose a very numerous group of dung-feeding Lamellicorns, of which, however, the majority are inhabitants of tropical countries. The species are generally of a black hue; but amongst them are to be found some adorned with the richest metallic colours. A remarkable peculiarity exists in the structure and situation of the hind legs, which are placed so near the extremity of the body, and so far from each other, as to give the insect a most extraordinary appearance when walking. Habits of This peculiar formation is, nevertheless, particularly serviceman beetle ak'e to 'ts possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious matter in which they enclose their eggs; whence these insects were named by the first naturalists Pilularias. These balls are at first irregular and soft, but, by degrees, and during the process of rolling along, become rounded and harder; they are propelled by means of the hind legs. Sometimes these balls are an inch and a half, or two inches in diameter, and in rolling them along the beetles stand almost upon their heads, with the heads turned from the balls. These manoeuvres have for their object the burying of the balls in holes, which the insects have previously dug for their reception; and it is upon the dung thus deposited that the larvae, when hatched, feed. It does not appear that these beetles have the instinct to distinguish their own balls, as they will seize upon those belonging to another, in case they have lost their own; and, indeed, it is said that several of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. The males as well as the females assist in rolling the pellets. They fly during the hottest part of the day.1 Latreille, in the Appendix to Cailliaud's Voyage d Mtrod, Paris, 1823-27,*
1 See J. O. Westwood, An Introduction to the Modern Classification of Insects; London, 1839, Vol. I. p. 204 IT.
1 Tom. ii. p. 311. "Cet insecte est d'un vert parfois eclatant; son corselet est nuance^ d'une teinte cuivreuse a reflet m£tallique." Compare Elian, De Nat. Animal., iv. 49; Aristotle, Hist. Animal., iv. 7; Pliny, Nat. Hist., xi. zo ff., and xxix. 6.
considers the species which he has named Ateuchus Aegyptiorum, or ijXioicdvOapos, and which is of a fine greenish colour, as that which especially engaged the attention of the early Egyptians; and Dr. G. W. Clarke affirms that it is eaten by the women of Egypt because it is considered an emblem of fertility. Horapollo, and other1 ancient writers, state that a female scarabaeus docs not exist. According to Horapollo Descrip(ed. Leemans, p. 11), a scarabaeus denotes an only begotten,* beetle by generation, father, world, and man. It represents an only Horapollo. begotten, because the scarabaeus is a creature self-produced, being unconceived by a female. The male, when desirous of procreating, takes some ox dung, and shapes it into a spherical form like the world. He next rolls it from east to west, looking himself towards the east. Having dug a hole, he buries it in it for twenty-eight days; on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball, and throws it into the water, and from it the scarabaei come forth. The idea of generation arises from its supposed acts. The scarabaeus denotes a father because it is engendered by a father only, and world because in its generation it is fashioned in the form of the world, and man because there is no female race among them. Every scarabaeus was also supposed to have thirty toes, corresponding with the thirty days' duration of the month.3 Latreille thinks that the belief that one sex only existed among scarabaei arose from the fact that the females are exceedingly like the males, and that both sexes appear to divide the care of the preservation of their offspring equally between them.
1 'O KavSapoi; d0ij\u Jiiov iffri, Aelian, De Natura Animal., x. xv. ed. Diclot, p. 172, Kaviapos yap rat ajiprjv, Porphyry, De Atstinentia, iv. 9, ed. Didot, p. 74.
3 For the word scaraieus applied to Christ compare, "Vermis in cruce: scarabeus in cruce: et bonus vermis qui haesit in ligno bonus scarabeus qui clamavit e ligno. Quid clamavit? Domine, nt staluas illis hoc fttcatum. Clamavit latroni: Hodie mecum eris in paradise Clamavit quasi scarabeus: Deut, Deus mens, quart me dercliquisti t Et bonus scarabeus qui lutum corporis nostri ante informe ac pigrum virtutum versabat vestigiis: bonus scarabeus, qui de stercore erigit pauperem." See the exposition of St. Luke, by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (Opera, Paris edition, 1686, torn. I. col. 1528, No. 113).
3 "En comptant pour un doigt chaque article des tarses, on reconnaitra que cet insecte avait 6t6 bien attcntivement examined" Mulsant, Histoire Nalurelle des Cottoptires de France, Lamellicornes; Paris, 1842, p. 48.