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8 — o o IX * 1W

® r-w-i «~ X\> T 1

next tes"-f resi er Karei

powerful. Frontier his south [is] as far as Karei* [frontier]

meht er N - harina

«0rM w] as far as Neharina}

III. The arrival of the bride of Amenophis III. in Egypt from Mesopotamia, with three hundred and seventeen of her women; the text reads:— *

, of Amcno

renpit met xer hen en Heru ka next xa phis III. Year tenth under the majesty of Horus, bull powerful, diademed

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taui Heru nub aa xepe^ bu

the two lands, Horus the golden, mighty of valour, smiter of

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ta anx suten hemt urt 0i 5nx0

giver of life, royal spouse, mighty lady, Thi, the living one

of Ameno

phisIII. ren en tef-s Iuaa ren en

the name of father her [was] Iuaa, the name of

mut-s 0uaa bait an - it

mother her [was] Thuaa. A 7Vonderful thing they brought to

ii-1 i P va a

hen-f anx ut'a senb set ser en

majesty his, life, strength, health, the daughter of the prince of



Neherna Saflarna Kirkipa

Mesopotamia, Satharna, Kirkipa

«Tai-^*-ai-"-Ti« ":

hetep en xenr* - s set s"aa xemt met' sexef

chiefs of women her. Women, 300 +10+7

IV. The construction of the lake of Queen Thi in the eleventh year of the reign of Amenophis. The text of this scarab was first published in Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, tav. xliv. No. 2. It was partly translated by Rosellini, then by Hinks (in Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxi. Dublin, 1848, Sec. "Polite Literature," On the age of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Manetho, p. 7), and by Birch, Records of the Past, Vol. XII. p. 41. The text printed below is corrected from Stern's copy in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1887, p. 87, note 2. The scarab is dated in the first day, the third month of sowing 1

1 Hathor.

of the eleventh year of Amenophis III., | Q ( TVttT ®.

The first few lines of the inscription containing the king's titles are the same as the beginning lines of the scarabs of the series. The making of the tank is described as follows:—

1W !w T T? - } ?as

. of Ameno

utu hen-f ant mer en suten hemt phis III.

Ordered majesty his tlie making of a lake for the royal spouse,

is- (m k - 5- it*

urt 0i em tema-s en T'aru ....

mighty lady, Thi in town her (?) of T'aru ....

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~~ XL. ®?

ari en hen - f heb tep set em

Made majesty his festival of tlu entrance of the waters on

abet xemt sat hru met'-sas xent hen - f en month third of sowing,1 day sixteen. Sailed majesty his in

m H-JU" k*(°S~

uaa Aten - neferu em - xennu"f

the boat

Of the inscriptions found on scarabs by far the greater Inscripnumber consists of the names of kings. Names of priests ^"abs? and ladies who took part in the services connected with the

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various gods are common enough; so also are those of the singers of Amen-Ra. Scarabs inscribed with the names of kings are important historically, because sometimes they form nearly the only memorials of kings and royal personages, and they fill up gaps in the lists of kings of Egypt of whom, otherwise, nothing would be known. The names of the kings most commonly found are Thothmes III., Amenophis III. and Rameses II., and of these that of Thothmes III. is the commonest. The use of the scarab by the Egyptians to denote the idea of resurrection is probably as old as their settlement in the Nile Valley, and scarabs are found inscribed with the names of nearly every king of every dynasty, beginning with that of Mena, the first king of the first dynasty, and ending with that of the Roman Emperor Antoninus.

Publica- The first published classification of scarabs was made by Catalogue the late Dr. Birch in his Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian b Birch* Antiquities at Alnwick Castle? pp. 103-167, 236-242, in which he described 565 objects of this class. The arrangement he followed in this subdivision was:—1. Names of mythological personages and emblems. 2. Historical inscriptions, names of kings, and historical representations. Lottie's 3. Titles of officers. In 1884, the Rev. W. J. Loftie published Essay. gssay 0f Scarabs? which contained a description of his

collection8 of 192 scarabs, inscribed with royal names, and excellent drawings of each. His collection, like those of the Museum of the Louvre and the British Museum, was arranged chronologically;4 the principle of the arrangement he explained in his interesting preface. In my Catalogue of the Egyptian Collection of the Harrow School Museum? pp. 14-29, I gave a description of nearly one hundred and fifty scarabs, Murray and translations of most of the inscriptions. In 1888 a cataandSmith. i0gUe Qf the scarabs and scaraboids from Egypt, Kamiros, and

1 Printed by the Duke of Northumberland lor private distribution, London, 1880.

• London, small 4to., no date.

3 Purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1S90.

4 Loftie, op. (it., p. xxxi.

• Marrow, 1887.

Tharros was published by Dr. A. S. Murray and Mr. Hamilton

Smith, in their Catalogue of Gems, pp. 46-58. In 1889

Mr. Flinders Petrie published a collection 1 of drawings of

2,363 scarabs, with a few pages of introduction. The idea of

this work was excellent, but the plates should have contained

a tolerably complete set of examples of scarabs, carefully

indexed. The title Historical Scarabs was a misnomer, for

the only, strictly speaking, historical scarabs known, the

series of the four of Amenophis III., were omitted.

Scarabs inscribed with certain kings' names were made Persis

and worn as much as a thousand years after the death of the certain^

kings whose names they bear. This fact is indisputable, names

and if any proof were required it is furnished by the scarabs scarabs.

dug up at Naucratis by Mr. Petrie. From the scarab-moulds

found there, and the material from which they are made, and

from the design and workmanship, it is clear that the scarabs

of Naucratis are not older than the Vllth century B.C.; yet

many of them bear the prenomens of Thothmes III., Seti I.

and Rameses II.,* etc. As the paste of which these are made

is identical with that of scarabs bearing the names of kings

of the XXVI th dynasty, there is no possible doubt about

this fact. Scarabs inscribed with the names of two kings Double

furnish another proof. Thus in the British Museum, Nos. names*

4033 and 4035 bear the names of Thothmes III. and Seti I.;

No. 16,580 bears the names of Thothmes I., Thothmes III.,

and Seti I.; No. 17,126 (a plaque) bears the names of

Thothmes III. and Rameses II.; No. 17,138 bears the names

of Thothmes III. and Rameses III.; No. 16,837 bears the

names of Thothmes III. and Rameses IX.; and No. 16,796

bears the names of Thothmes III. and Psammetichus. That

scarabs of a late period are found in tombs of the Vlth,

Xllth and XVIIIth dynasties is not to be wondered at, for

tombs were used over and over again for burial by families Exact

who lived hundreds of years after they were first hewn out, scaJabV

and who had no connexion whatever with the people who '^possible.

1 Historical Scarabs; A series of Drawings from the Principal Collections. Arranged Chronologically. London, 1889.

1 Naucratis, London, 1886, Plate XXXVII., No. 63, etc., PI. XXXVIII., No. 182.

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