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were first buried in them. When a scarab is found bound up in a mummy, the date of which can be ascertained from the inscriptions upon it, that scarab can be used with advantage as an authority by which to compare other scarabs ;l when, however, a scarab is dug up with a lot of miscellaneous stuff it is of little value for the purpose of comparison. From the lowest depths of the Vlth and Xllth dynasty tombs at Aswan, scarabs have been dug up which could not have been a day older than the XXVIth dynasty, if as old. In some of these tombs, carefully closed with beautifully fitting blocks of stone, were found also red terra-cotta jars inscribed in hieratic which could not have been a day older than the XlXth dynasty, yet the inscriptions on the walls proved beyond a doubt that the tombs were made for officials who lived during the XIIth dynasty. It must then be clearly understood that the objects found in a tomb do not, necessarily, belong to the period of the tomb itself, and all the evidence known points Chrono- to the fact that it is nearly impossible to arrange a collection arrange- °^ scaraDS chronologically, except so far as the order of the ment of names is concerned. Comparatively little is known about the possible, various local manufactures of scarabs, or of their characteristics, and hundreds of examples of them exist which can neither be read nor explained nor understood. Scarabs What has been said of the scarabs of Naucratis applies

Kamirosf' equally to those found at Ialysos and Kamiros in Rhodes, and an(j at Tharros in Sardinia, places associated with the Phoenicians or Carthaginians. At Ialysos, faience and steatite scarabs are rare. Of the three found there preserved in the British Museum, two are steatite and one is of faience. One of the examples in steatite is fractured, whereby the design or inscription is rendered illegible, and the other is inscribed with ^ tet, emblem of stability, on each side of which is an uraeus j^. The example in faience measures IJ inch in length, and is inscribed with the prenomen of Amen-hetep III., ^0 ^ .' Scarabs are rare in Kamiros

1 Such a scarab, however, may quite well be older than the mummy upon which it is found.

• Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 72-3-15, no; 70-10-3, 130 and 131.

also, so far as concerns the tombs, and in those in which black and red vases were obtained no scarabs were found; many specimens were, however, found in a well on the Acropolis,1 and among them were some inscribed with the prenomen of Thothmcs III.,* having all the characteristics of those of the XXVIth dynasty found at Naucratis. The scarabs found at Tharros do not go farther back than the period of Carthaginian supremacy, that is, not farther than the middle of the Vlth century B.C.* A steatite scarab, found at

Thebes in Bceotia, inscribed with -j- anch " life," and a winged

gryphon wearing the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt

^t belongs to the same period.4

At Kouyunjik there were found two pieces of clay, of Impresthe same colour and substance as that employed by Assur- scarai» banipal for the tablets of his library, bearing impres- S^a^ sions of an Egyptian king slaughtering his enemies, and hieroglyphic inscriptions, probably from a scarab. The king holds a club or weapon in his raised left hand, and his right holds some instrument which rests on the heads of a number of captives. The inscriptions read ^ ^5r?yt \\ ® neter nefer Sliabaka neb art yet, "Beautiful god, Shabaka, the lord, maker of things" (the first king of the XXVth dynasty, about B.C. 700). Behind the king

are the signs °Wtt» sa "protection," ^ anch " life," and ^ ha "increase [of power]." In front of the king is the speech of

A I V V _ Ft.

some god A 1 td-na nek set nebu, I give to

fa /iA^z^*r-~i tilt* > &

thee all foreign lands." The Brit Mus. Registration Nos. of these interesting objects are 51-9-2, 43, and 81-2-4, 352; as there is on the former also the impression of the seal of an Assyrian king, it has been thought5 that the impression

1 No. 132 in Table-Case E in the Kouyunjik Gallery. 1 Murray, Catalogue of Gems, p. 13.

3 Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 64-10-7, 895, 915, 1998.

4 Murray, op. cit., p. 13, and King, Antique Gems and Rings, Vol. I. p. 124. * See Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1867, pp. 173, 174.

formed the seal of a treaty between the kings of Egypt and Assyria. Shabaka (Sabaco) was a contemporary of Sennacherib, B.C. 705-681. Use of The Phoenicians borrowed the use of the scarab from

Ph^ln, Egypt, and as their country was overrun by Shalmaneser II., cians- King of Assyria B.C. 860-825, and by many of his successors, it is only natural that the scarab inscribed with devices to suit the Assyrian market should find its way to Nineveh and Babylon, the Phoenician adopting in return the form of gem commonly used by the Assyrians for seals. A good example of the Phoenicio-Assyrian scarab is No. 1029, exhibited in the table-case in the Phoenician Room of the British Museum. It is made of green jasper, and measures if in. in length. On the base is inscribed a man, who stands adoring a seated deity; above is a seven-rayed star, and between them is T dnch, " life." Beneath is inscribed in Phoenician characters,

*nSD rr\Tb, "Belonging to H6d6 the Scribe." For other examples see the specimens exhibited in the same case. As an example of the adoption of the chalcedony cone by the Phoenicians, see No. 1022, on which is inscribed a man at a fire altar and the name Palzir-shemesh in Phoenician characters. The scarab in relief,1 with outstretched wings Use of inlaid with blue, red and gold carved upon an ivory panel Babylonia. f°und at Abu Habbah, about five hours' ride to the southwest of Bagdad, together with a number of miscellaneous ivory objects, is a proof of the knowledge of the scarab in Mesopotamia. That the panel was not carved by an Egyptian workman is very evident.* Scaraboids in agate and crystal, etc., are a small but very interesting class; at times the device is purely Egyptian, and the inscriptions in Phoenician letters are the only additions by the Phoenicians. Brit Mus. Nos. 1024 and 1036 are tolerably good examples of them. The former is inscribed on the base with three hawks with outspread wings, and two of them have disks on

'See Table-Case G in the Nimroud Gallery.

1 The two rectangular weights (?) found at Nimroud by Sir A. H. Layard {Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1867, p. 64) have each, on one face, the figure of a scarab inlaid in gold in outline; the work is excellent, and is a fine example of Phoenician handicraft.

their heads; these, of course, represent the hawk of Horus. The Phoenician inscription gives the name Eliam. The latter is inscribed with a beetle in a square frame, and on the

right and left is an uraeus ;each end of the perpendicular

sides of the frame terminates in anch, and above and below

it is a figure of Ra, or Horus, hawk-headed, holding a sceptre

^. The name, inscribed in Phoenician characters, is "Mer

sekem." In 1891, while carrying on excavations at Der, a place about three and a half hours to the south-west of Bagdad, I obtained a steatite scarab inscribed with an uraeus [)„, m

'(£1^' Babylonia.

anch , and an illegible sign, together with an oval green transparent Gnostic gem inscribed with the lion-headed serpent XNOYBIC. Both objects were probably brought from Lower Egypt, and belong to a period after the birth of Christ.1

Dr. Birch describes in Nineveh and Babylon (London, Scarabs 1853, pp. 281, 282) a series of eleven scarabs which Sir Henry Arban.*4 Layard dug up at Arban, a mound situated on the western bank of the Khabur, about two and a half days' journey north of Der on the Euphrates, and about ten miles east of the 'Abd el-'Aziz hills. With one exception they are all made of steatite, glazed yellow or green or blue. Two of them are inscribed with the prenomen of Thothmes III. (Nos. 304, 309)*; one bears the prenomen of Amenophis III. (No 320), with the titles "beautiful god, lord of two lands, crowned in

every land "; one is inscribed c^i ^ (j men Cheperd

at Amen, "established of Chepera, emanation of Amen"

(No. 322); two are inscribed (No. 303) and

(No. 318), and belong to the same period; one is inscribed Scarabs

with a hawk-headed lion and a hawk (No. 273) ; one bears Arbl'n^

the legend, " beautiful lord, lord of two lands," i.e., the North

and South (No. 321); one is inscribed with a human-headed

1 The numbers are G. 475 and 24,314.

J These interesting objects are exhibited in the Assyrian and Babylonian Room, in the Northern Gallery of the British Museum.

beetle, with outstretched wings, in the field are uraei and J J of beautiful workmanship (No. 302); and one is inscribed with p and an urseus having on its head (No. 307).

The scarab in haematite (No. 313) is inscribed with the figure of a king seated on a throne, and a man standing before him in adoration; between them is With the exception

of this last scarab, it is pretty certain that all belong to the period of the XVIIIth dynasty, for they have all the appearance of such antiquity, and they possess all the delicacy of workmanship found upon scarabs of this time. The design on the haematite scarab appears to be a copy from an Egyptian scarab executed by a foreign workman, but it may be that the hardness of the material made the task of engraving so difficult, that the character of the design was altered in consequence. The presence of these scarabs at Arban is not difficult to account for. Thothmes L, one of the early kings of the XVIIIth dynasty, carried his victorious arms into Mesopotamia, and set up a tablet to mark the boundary of the Egyptian territory at a place called Ni, on the Euphrates, and the authority of the Egyptians in that land was so great that when Thothmes III. arrived there several years after, he found the tablet still standing. The kings who immediately succeeded Thothmes I. marched into this land, and that their followers should take up quarters on the fertile banks of the Khabur, and leave behind them scarabs and other relics, is not to be wondered at. The antiquities found at Arban are of a very miscellaneous chaiacter, and, among other things, include an Assyrian colossus inscribed "Palace of Meshezib-Marduk the king" (B.C. 700), and a Chinese glass bottle1 inscribed with a verse of the Chinese poet Kein-tau, A.d. 827-831; it is possible that the scarabs described above may have been brought there at a period subsequent to the XVIIIth dynasty, but, in any case, the objects themselves appear to belong to this period. Use of The Gnostics inscribed the scarab on the gems worn by

scarab by tjien,( anc[ partly adopted the views concerning it held by the


1 British Museum, No. N. 1380.

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