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Sometimes the heart is human-headed, with the hands crossed over it (B.M. 15,598), and sometimes a figure of the soul, in the shape of a hawk with outstretched wings, is inlaid on one side of it (B.M. No. 8005). The chapters in the Book of the Dead which refer to the heart are the 26th, the “ Chapter of giving to a person his heart in the underworld ”; The the 27th, 28th, 29th A,“ Chapter of not allowing the heart of
O of the a person to be taken away from him in the underworld”; Heart, 29 B, “Chapter of a heart of carnelian ;” 30 A, and 30 B, “Chapter of not allowing the heart of a person to be turned away from him in the underworld.” The most important chapter of the heart, and that most commonly found, 29 B, is translated in that portion of this Catalogue which describes the green basalt heart in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; for the text of the others see Naville, Das Todtenbuch, BlI. XXXVII.XLIII. ; and for translations see Birch, On formulas relating to the heart, in Aeg. Zeit., 1866, pp. 69, 1867, pp. 16, 54; and Pierret, Le Livre des Morts, pp. 103-114. An interesting example of the heart amulet is described by Birch"; on one side are a Net, “Neith” and the bennu bird, with the legend 3 Nuk ba xeperà, “I am the soul of Chepera,” and on the other is the common chapter of the heart. The bennu bird or phenix was an emblem of the resurrection.
VIJI. The Amulet of Life of anx. This object is found in every material used by the Egyptians for making amulets, and formed a very common ornament for the living and the dead. Necklaces were frequently composed of pendants made in forms of t, 1, and , and sometimes neferu fit “good luck,” were added.
IX. The “Symbolic Eye” or Du o , ut'at. This amulet was made of glazed faïence, wood, granite, hæmatite, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, gold, silver, and many other materials. Ut'ats are either right or left, and they are also made double or quadruple; they are sometimes made in
Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in Alnwick Castle, p. 224.
The amulet of the ut'at.
hollow-work, and are sometimes ornamented with a number of others in relief. Some have on their obverse a head of Hathor (B.M. No. 7357) or a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 21,547); on their reverse they frequently have names of kings, private persons, or gods. They are sometimes made with wings, and have an arm and hand holding + “life,” projecting (B.M. No. 7378); and some have a ram and two lions on them in relief. The two ut'ats, right and left, represented the two eyes of the sun S o , the one symbolising the northern half of the sun's daily course, and the other the southern half; they also represented the sun and moon. On sepulchral boxes the utsats are often accompanied by neferu Bll . The vignette of the 163rd chapter of the Book of the Dead contains two ut'ats, winged, with human legs, and the vignette of the 167th or“ Chapter of bringing the ut'at,” is Ro; the 140th chapter was to be recited over an ut'at made of lapis-lazuli, and offerings were to be made to it. The word ut'a 101 | means “to be in good health, safe, preserved and happy," and the popularity of this amulet in Egypt was probably due to the fact that those who wore it, whether living or dead, were supposed to be safe and happy under the protection of the eye of Rā.
X. The amulet Nefer kan I or “Good Luck," was commonly made of glazed faïence or of carnelian, and was much used by the Egyptians for necklaces. XI. The amulet Sam J or
P l represented “ union”; sometimes it is made thus and then probably represents sam-ta, the union with the earth or “ funeral.”
XII. The amulet Chut o represented the disk of the sun on the horizon, and was often made of jasper or hard stone.
XIII. The amulet Shen e represented the orbit of the sun, and is made of lapis-lazuli and of carnelian. It is often found on sepulchral stelæ and boxes, but its exact use is unknown.
XIV, XV. The amulet of the Tesher crown / represented the crown of Lower Egypt; and I
presented the crown of Upper Egypt.
XVI. The amulet of the Menát 1. signified Miscel“joy” and “health,” and perhaps “ life."1 It is always worn amulets. by Ptaḥ at the back of his neck, and it is frequently an emblem of the goddess Hathor.
XVII. The Cartouche () is thought by Pierret (Dict. d'Archéologie Egyptienne, p. 118) to be nothing more than an elongated seal (see No. XIII), and to represent natural reproduction and eternity.
XVIII. The amulet Neha p or m 7 represented “protection"; it was made chiefly of hæmatite, and is found in the breast of the mummy.
XIX. The amulet of the Serpent's head is made of stone, red jasper, or paste to imitate red jasper, and carnelian. It was placed on mummies to prevent their being bitten by snakes and other reptiles in the underworld. The 34th chapter of the Book of the Dead, entitled, “ Chapter of not allowing a person to be bitten in the underworld by a serpent,” is sometimes found engraved upon this amulet. In later times glass and faïence models of serpents ro, , were worn by men and women round the neck; they were probably connected in some way with Isis.
XX. The amulet of the Disk and Plumes probably represented the head-dress of Seker, the god of the resurrection ; the feathers PB often occur without the disk. The use of this amulet is unknown.
XXI. The Frog a represents “myriads.” This amulet is made of steatite, jasper of various colours, faïence, etc.; it
1 For a discussion on this amulet see Lefébure, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1891, pp. 333-349.
The frog emblem of the resurrection.
is often found with and ), and was probably placed with these on the neck of the mummy, although examples are known which were taken from the chest. The frog-headed goddess & Heqt is a form of the goddess Hathor, the wife of Chnemu ; she was considered to be connected with the resurrection. On lamps of the Greek and Roman periods found in Egypt the frog often appears on the upper part, and one is known which has the legend Erw EIMI ANACTACIC, “I am the resurrection.” The use of this amulet appears not to be older than the XVIIIth dynasty.
XXII. The Stairs or . This amulet is usually made of glazed faïence, but the use of it is unknown to me. In the vignette of the nioth chapter of the Book of the Dead it is figured placed in a boat (Naville, Das Todtenbuch, Bl. CXXIII.); in the 22nd chapter the deceased says, “I am Osiris, lord of Re-stau (the passages of the tomb), and of those who are at the top of the stairs ”; and in the 85th chapter the deceased says, “ I am the lord of the stairs, I have made my nest on the borders of the sky.”
XXIII. The amulet of the two Fingers, the index and medius, is found in the interior of mummies, and is generally made of hæmatite or obsidian. The use of the amulet is unknown to me.
In every Egyptian collection of importance a large number of rings, having a gap in each, will be found; they are made of gold, red jasper, obsidian, red glazed faïence, shell, stone, and glass. Those made of gold have a small ring at each end for a wire to pass through (?), and they may thus have been used as earrings or pendants for necklaces ; on the other hand they may have been used as amulets. Some believe that they were used as buttons.
FIGURES OF GODS. The gold, silver, bronze, wooden and faïence figures of gods in Egyptian collections may be reckoned by thousands, and they vary in size from half an inch to fifteen inches or
| Figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 853.
more. Bronze statues were usually cast in moulds, in one or more pieces, the core being made of sand or earth. When cast in pieces the limbs were soldered together and the edges smoothed with a file or scraper. The core is frequently found Method of inside the statue, where it was left by the workmen to ture. strengthen the casting. Figures of gods in gold are comparatively few, the gods most often represented in this metal being Amen-Rā, Chensu, and Nefer-Atmu ; figures of these gods were also made of silver and plated with gold, and a figure of the god Set, made of bronze plated with gold, is also known (B.M. No. 18,191). Bronze figures of gods were sometimes inlaid with gold, and the eyes were made of gold or silver with obsidian pupils. Glazed faïence figures of gods are very common, and certain gods were made of this substance, which up to the present have rarely been met with in bronze. They were usually cast from moulds, and follow fairly closely the design and patterns of the bronze figures; they do not occur earlier than the XXVth or XXVIth dynasty, and although wretched copies of them were made for hundreds of years after, they do not appear to have continued in use among all classes of people in Egypt. It may be mentioned in passing that the natives of Egypt at the present day make use of the old moulds, found chiefly in Upper Egypt, to cast figures of the gods in gold and silver which they sell to the traveller as genuine antiquities.
Figures of the gods of Egypt are found among the ruins of houses and in temples and tombs. According to M. Mariette' those found among the ruins of towns are of two kinds: 1, those placed in a niche, cut in the form of a Uses of shrine, which represented the divinity to the service of which bronze
figures. the inhabitants of the house were attached, and before which, on certain days, offerings were laid ; 2, those which were placed in crevices of the walls of the inner chambers of the house, and which were supposed to be able by magical influence to protect the inhabitants of the house from spells and the results of incantations, and from other malignant influences. The use of this latter class of statues or small
Catalogue Général des Monuments d'Abydos, p. 1.