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figures is as old as the XVIIIth dynasty, at least. The figures of gods found in temples are very numerous and are votive. The Egyptians seem to have believed that the gods inhabited statues or figures, made in their honour, and on this account they often made them very beautiful, so that they might form worthy habitations for them. On certain days prayers were said before them, and offerings were made to them. As figures of many different gods are found in the same temple, it follows that a worshipper wishing to place a figure of a god in a temple was not bound to offer one of the god to whom the temple was dedicated; supposing the temple to be one of Ptah, he could offer a figure of Ra, or Chnemu, or of any god he pleased. Figures of gods were supposed to answer questions, for it will be remembered that when Chensu was asked if he would go to the land of Bechten to cure a daughter of the prince of that land of her sickness, he inclined his head in assent. When he arrived in that land, he held a conversation with the demon that possessed the maiden, and when the demon agreed to come out from her, provided that a feast were made in his honour, the god
Funereal through his priest, assented. Figures of gods other than bronzes. Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys are not commonly found in tombs;
it is true that many examples in faYence are found in the wrappings of mummies, but in these cases they were simply used as amulets like the buckle, tet, pillow and many others. Figures of gods made of every sort of material were also buried in the sand around temples and tombs with the view of guarding them from every evil influence. The following is a list of the most important of the gods and goddesses of whom figures were made in bronze and glazed faience:—
great triad of Thebes; the word Amen means "hidden." Amen was said to be the son of Ptah, and he seems to have
Amen the usurped the attributes of all the other gods. Before the exgodof11 pulsion of the Hyksos by Se-qenen-Ra his position was that Egyp'- of the local god of Thebes; subsequently he became the national god of Egypt He was said to be the maker of things above and of things below, and to have more forms
than any other god. He made the gods, and stretched out the heavens, and founded the earth; he was lord of eternity and maker of everlasting. The Egyptians affirmed of him that he was ONE, the ONLY ONE. In bronze figures
he stands upon a plinth, he holds the sceptre | in his left
hand, and on his head he wears the disk and feathers ;at
times he holds a scimitar (B.M. Nos. 28, 29). He is also represented seated on a throne, and the throne was sometimes placed inside a shrine, the top of which was ornamented with uraei, winged disk, etc., and the sides and back with hollow-work figures of Isis, Nephthys, and Osiris (B.M. No. 11,013). On the pedestals he is called "Amen-Ra, lord of the thrones of the world, the president of the Apts (i.e.,
Karnak), lord of heaven, prince of Thebes."
one of a triad consisting of Amen, Amsu, and Ra (B.M. No. 18,681). The faience figures of this god are similar to
The god of procreation.
Different forms of Ra.
the bronze Ml, and he appears together with the other
members of his triad, Mut and Chensu.
Ames or Amsu Q —TJ— —— cy!: ^, commonly read
"Chem," is a form of Amen-Ra, and represented "generation " or the productive power in nature: figures of him, in
bronze and faience, fl^, are tolerably numerous.
Ra <~=> O ^j, the Sun-god, was also the creator of gods
and men; his emblem was the sun's disk. His worship was very ancient, and he was said to be the offspring of Nut, or the sky. He assumed the forms of several other, gods, and is at times represented by the lion, cat, and hawk. In papyri and on bas-reliefs he has the head of a hawk, and wears a disk,
in froilt of which is an urseus Jj. When he rose in the
morning he was called Heru-chuti or Harmachis; and at night, when he set, he was called Atmu, or "the closer."
During the night he was supposed to be engaged in fighting Apepi, the serpent, who, at the head of a large army of fiends, personifications of mist, darkness, and cloud, tried to overthrow him. The battle was renewed daily, but Ra always conquered, and appeared day after day in the sky. Bronze and faience figures of this god represent him hawkheaded and wearing disk and uraeus.
Menthu-Ra t~~1 s=> \\ G J) in bronze figures is hawk- Rathe
-il I SU * warrior
headed, and wears the disk, in front of which are two uraei, and plumes; at times figures have two hawk's heads on a single body.
usually called "the avenger of his father," in reference to his defeat of Set. Figures in bronze and faience represent him hawk-headed and wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. This god was distinguished in name only from Heru-ur, the elder brother of Osiris.
Different forms of Chensu.
sun, in bronze or faience wears the crown of Upper and
Lower Egypt ^T, or the triple crown or the plumes (JJ,
or is quite bald; over the right shoulder a lock of hair falls, and the tip of a finger of the right hand rests on his lips. He is represented naked, as being in the lap of his mother Isis.
Chensu [1 ^ J) was associated with Amen-Ra and
Mut in the Theban triad, and was god of the moon. In bronze figures he is human-headed, and wears a crescent and disk; in fafence figures he is made like a mummy, and holds sceptres of different shapes in his hands. His second name was Nefer-hetep, and he was worshipped with great honour
at Thebes. Chensu-pa-chrat JJ^ 1 ^ % has all the
attributes of Harpocrates, and figures of him in bronze are not rare. A very fine specimen is B.M. No. 11,045
The night- of the day or night, usually represents the night-sun