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wears the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt; in the right
hand he holds and in the left |. Nefer-Atmu, the son of
Ptah and Sechet or Bast, represents the power of the heat of the rising sun. Figures of this god were made in gold, silver, bronze, and faience. In metal, he stands upright, wearing lotus flowers and plumes on his head, in his right hand he
holds I and in the left Sometimes each shoulder is inlaid
in gold with an ufat (B.M. No. 22,921). In faience he has the same head-dress, but stands on a lion; in faience, too, he is often accompanied by his mother Sechet or Bast (B.M. Nos. 250^, 260a).
Ptah D § U, the "Opener," perhaps the oldest of all the The oldest
o A Jl god of
gods of Egypt, was honoured with a temple and worshipped Egypt, at Memphis from the time of the 1st dynasty. He is said to be the father of the gods, who came forth from his eye, and of men, who came forth from his mouth.
The god of the resurrection.
Imouthis the scribe.
He is represented in the form of a mummy, and he holds a sceptre composed of | usr," strength," ^ anch, " life," and
H tet, "stability." Bronze and faience figures of this god are tolerably common, and resemble each other in form and design. At the back of his neck he wears the mendt With reference to his connexion with the resurrection and the nether world, he is called Ptah-Seker-Aus&r, and is represented as a little squat boy, with bent legs, and his hands on his hips. Sometimes he has his feet on the head of a crocodile; on the right side stands Isis, on the left Nephthys, at his back is a human-headed hawk emblematic of the soul, on each shoulder is a hawk, and on his head is a beetle, the emblem of Chepera, the self-begotten god. In faience figures of this god are very common, but in bronze they are rare.
I-em-hetep ^ Jjj^ c=^ ^j, the Imouthis of the Greeks, was the first-born son of Ptah and Nut. He is represented
both standing and seated, holding a sceptre j in the right hand, and in the left; at times he holds on his knees an open roll, upon which is inscribed his name. The bronze figures of this god are usually of very fine workmanship, often having the inscriptions inlaid in gold; in faience, figures of this god are very rare.
Chnemu Q jjj^ ^> ^j, the "Moulder," the Xvovfi^, The
Xvovftis, Xvovfii, Kvr\$ or Kvov<f>i<; of the Greeks, is one of er" of the oldest gods of Egypt, and was especially worshipped man* in Nubia, at Philae, where he is represented making man out of clay on a potter's wheel, and at Elephantine. Like Amen-Ra he is said to be the father of the gods,1 and
Thoth the accurate scribe of the gods.
murderer of Osiris and
opponent of Horus.
with this god and Ptah and Chepera he shared the name of "creator of men." Chnemu put together the scattered limbs of the dead body of Osiris, and it was he who created the beautiful woman who became the wife of Bata in the Tale of the Two Brothers. In bronze and fafence, figures of this god represent him with the head of a ram, and wearing
plumes, ;these figures are tolerably common.
Thoth, in Egyptian Tehuti .7^ . the "Measurer," was
the scribe of the gods, the measurer of time and inventor of numbers. In the judgment hall of Osiris he stands by the side of the balance holding a palette and reed ready to record the result of the weighing of the heart as announced by the dog-headed ape who sits on the middle of the beam of the scales. In bronze figures he is represented with the head of an ibis, but he has upon it sometimes horns and plumes. In fafence figures he has also the head of an ibis, and occasionally he holds an ut'at between his hands in front of him
(B. M. No. 490a).
Set or Sut p A , Gr. 2qd, was one of the sons of Seb
and Nut, and was brother of Osiris, and husband of Nephthys. His worship dates from the Vth dynasty, and he continued to be a most popular god in Egypt until the XlXth dynasty; kings delighted to call themselves "beloved of Set," and to be compared to him for valour when the records of their battles were written down. He probably represented the destructive power of the sun's heat. Between the XXIInd and XXVth dynasties a violent reaction set in against this god, his statues and figures were smashed, his effigy was hammered out from the bas-reliefs and stelae in which it appeared, and from being a beneficent god, and a companion of Amen and his brother-gods, he became the personification of all. evil, and the opponent of all good. His persistent enmity of Osiris will be mentioned below. Set, or Sutech, was chosen by the Hyksos for their god. Bronze figures of Set are very rare indeed. The British Museum possesses two examples, Nos. 18,191 and 22,897; each represents the god standing upright, in each he has the characteristic animal's head, and wears the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, ^;
each figure was originally gilded, and each has a hole drilled in a projecting piece of metal, from which it was suspended and worn. When I bought the larger figure it was bent double, evidently by a violent blow, given probably when the reaction against this god's worship set in. Faience figures of Set I have never seen.
Osiris, in Egyptian Ausdr j , the great god and king of
the underworld, the judge of the dead, was the son of Seb and Nut, and husband of Isis; he was murdered by his brother Set, who was in turn slain by Horus, the son of Osiris, and the "avenger of his father." According to Plutarch (De Plutarch's hide et Osiride, xii.-xx.) Osiris was the wise and good king osms?f of Egypt, who spent his life in civilizing his subjects and in improving their condition. Having brought them out of degradation and savagery, he set out to do the like for the other nations of the world. Upon his return his brother Set,