Page images
PDF
EPUB

As soon

[ocr errors]

together with seventy-two other people, and the queen of Ethiopia, made a conspiracy against him. They invited him into a banqueting room, and by an artful device made Osiris get into a box which Set had previously caused to be made to fit him.

as Osiris had lain down in it, the conspirators nailed the cover on it, and having poured molten lead over it, they carried it by river to the sea, the waves of which washed it up at Byblos. As soon as Isis heard of what had happened, she set out to search for her husband's body, and eventually found it; but having carried it off to another place, it was accidentally discovered by Set, who forthwith broke open the chest, and tore the body into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and down the country. Isis then set out to search for the pieces of her husband's body, and she found all but one; wherever she found a piece she buried it, and built a temple over it. He was the type of all mummies, and the deceased is made like unto him, and named after him. Bronze figures of this god represent him as a mum

[blocks in formation]

mified figure wearing the crown in his right hand he holds the whip A, and in the left the crook P. Figures of this god in faïence are not very common. Isis, in Egyptian Åuset Jet , was a daughter of Seb and The family

of Osiris. Nut; she married her brother Osiris. Bronze figures represent her 1, standing and wearing | upon her head, and 2, seated suckling her naked child Horus, who is sitting on her knees, at her left breast, and wearing disk and horns upon her head. In faïence many figures of both kinds are found. In funereal scenes Isis stands at the foot of the bier mourning the deceased.

Nephthys, in Egyptian Nebt-net Tool, was also a daughter of Seb and Nut; she married her brother Sct. Bronze figures, which are not common, represent her standing draped in a long tunic, and wearing ] on her head ; in faïence, figures of this goddess are very numerous, and follow the style and design of those in bronze. A number of rectangular faïence pendants have been found in which Isis, Nephthys and Harpocrates or Horus stand side by side.

Anubis, in Egyptian Ånpu 40 j was, according to some legends, the son of Nephthys and Osiris, who mistook that goddess for Isis; elsewhere he is said to be the son of Rā. He is always represented as having the head of a jackal, and he is one of the chief gods of the dead and the netherworld. He presided over the embalming of the mummy, he The god led the mummy into the presence of Osiris, and watched over tomb. the ceremony of weighing the heart, and he is often represented standing by the bier with one hand laid on the inummy. The belief that this god acted in this capacity survived for some centuries after Christ, and a remarkable proof of this fact is given by a light green, glazed farence plaque in the British Museum, No. 22,874. On the obverse PersistAnubis, jackal-headed, in relief, stands by the side of a bier ence of

Pagan bein the shape of a lion, also in relief; on the reverse, in relief, liefsamong

the Copts.

are two lines of inscription in Coptic which read, &C IHC E
TWNK, “May she hasten to arise.” At each end is a pierced
projection whereby the plaque was fastened to the mummy.
The plaque is an interesting example of the survival of
ancient Egyptian ideas among the Egyptians after they had
embraced Christianity. Anubis is sometimes confused with

"the opener of the ways,” another
jackal-headed god, and the attributes of the one are ascribed

[ocr errors]

Åp-uat VII,

|

Anpu (Anubis).

Shu.

to the other. Bronze and farence figures of this god represent
him standing and having the head of a jackal.

Shu, in Egyptian

Sunlight and moisture

was the first-born son of Rā and Hathor, and brother of Tefnut, he is supposed to symbolise the air or sun-light, and in papyri and on coffins he is represented in the form of a man, standing with both arms raised, lifting up Nut, or the sky, from the embrace of Seb the earth. In bronze and faïence figures he is in the form of

a man kneeling on his right knee and supporting the sun's disk and horizon with his upraised arms on his shoulders. There is in the British Museum (No. 11,057) a fine example of an ægis in bronze with the heads of Shu and Tefnut,

8 }, his sister, upon it. Shu is bearded and wears two pairs of plumes upon his head; Tefnut has the head of a lion and wears a disk and uræus ; B.M. No. 389 is an example of these gods in faïence. Standing figures of Shu, in faïence, have sometimes on his head.

Нарі 8

and

, the god of the Nile, is depicted as a man, sitting or standing, holding a table or altar on which are vases for libations, 128, and lotus flowers fruits, he also has a clump of lotus flowers upon his head. The NileThe British Museum possesses a figure of this god, No. 11,069, which represents him standing upright, with a table of

god.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

offerings of plants, fruits and flowers before him. On his head he wears 1, and in front is an utat

Apis or Ħāpi 8 850 “the second life of Ptaḥ," and

the incarnation of Osiris, was the name given to the Antiquity sacred bull of Memphis, where the worship of this god was of Apis worship.

most ancient, having been introduced from Heliopolis by Kakau, a king of the IInd dynasty. He is variously called " the son of Ptah,” “the son of Tmu,” “the son of Osiris," and “the son of Seker.” In bronze Hāpi is sometimes represented in the form of a man with a bull's head, between the horns of which are a disk and an uræus wearing a disk. Usually, however, he is in the form of a bull having a disk and an uræus between the horns ; on the back above the shoulders is engraved a vulture with outstretched wings, and on the back, over the hind quarters, is a winged scarab. The bull usually stands on a rectangular pedestal, on the sides of which are inscribed the name and titles of the person who had the bull made; on the same pedestal is frequently a figure of this person kneeling in adoration before him. Figures of Apis in bronze are commoner than those in faïence. According to Herodotus (II. 27–29) Apis was the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring ; "and the Egyp

tians say, that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, Descrip- and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which tion of the Apis bull. is called Apis, has the following marks: it is black, and has a

square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the figure of an eagle; and in the tail double hairs; and on the tongue a beetle.”

When Apis was dead he was called Ausår Hāpi or ] in 999), or Serapis by the Greeks, and he is represented on coffins in the form of a bull with disk and uræus on his head; on his back is the mummy of the deceased, above which the soul in the form of a hawk is seen hovering. The place where the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried was called the Serapeum, and Mariette discovered at Sakkârah their tombs, dating from the time of Amenophis III. down to that of the Roman Empire. Above cach tomb of

« PreviousContinue »