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an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called.

The Mnevis bull, ^* LTl^f^}> worshipped at Heliopolis,

is thought by some to represent the same symbolism, and to be identical in form with Apis; he is called the "renewing of the life of Ra."

Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf, the four The gods children of Horus (see Canopic Jars, p. 194), are common in cardinal glazed faience, but rare in bronze. points.

Sati together with Anqet anc* Chnemu,

formed the triad of Elephantine, and she seems to resemble Nephthys in some of her attributes. She usually stands upright, holding -y in her right hand, and J in her left. The

British Museum possesses one example, No. 110, in bronze, in which she is represented seated. On her head she wears the crown of Upper Egypt, in the front of which is an

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urseus; a pair of horns follows the contour of the white crown, and above them is a star. No. 11,143 is a fine bronze figure of a woman, standing upright upon a pedestal;

forTof r'^t arm nan8s DY her s'^e' but the left arm is bent, and

Isis. her hand, holding an object, is laid upon her breast. She has the same head-dress as No. 110, and I believe her to be the same goddess, although she is labelled Hesi-Sept. [Isis-Sothis or the Dog Star.] Dr. Birch probably had some reason for thus labelling it, but it is unknown to me. The British Museum possesses one example also in faience, No. 13,664, in which the goddess stands upright.

Sebek represented the destroying power of

the sun, and his worship is as old as the Xlllth dynasty. The British Museum possesses one example of this god in bronze, No. 22,924, in which he stands upright, and has the head of a crocodile surmounted with disk, plumes and ura;i,

which have disks and horns J^_

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Anher , "the leader of the celestial regions,"

which Shu supports, is usually represented wearing plumes

[jj, and holding a dart; he is at times called ^ Jj

neb mab," lord of the dart." The British Museum possesses a glazed faience pendant, No. 11,335, upon which this god is represented in relief, standing upright and wearing plumes;

in his right hand he holds and in the left the sceptre |. This sceptre is usually composed of

f' 8* and 1


perpendicularly one above the other. He is sometimes called An-her Shu se Rd, " An-her Shu, the son of Ra."

Bes Jjp^, a god whose worship in Egypt dates from a

very remote period, seems to have possessed a double character. He is represented as a grotesque person with horns and eyes on a level with the top of his head, his tongue hangs out, and he has bandy legs. He wears a crown of

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The various aspects of Bes.

Worship of Bes of foreign origin.

feathers on his head, and a leopard's skin thrown round his body. As a warrior, or the god of war, he is armed with a shield and sword, and sometimes he has a bow; he was also the god of music and the dance, and in this character he is represented as a tailed creature, half man, half animal, playing a harp, or striking cymbals together and dancing. It is thought that he symbolized the destructive power of nature, and in this capacity he is identified in the Book of the Dead with Set; as the god of joy and pleasure figures of him are carved upon the kohl jars, and other articles used by Egyptian ladies in their toilet The worship of this god

seems to have been introduced into Egypt from \

Neter ta, i.e., the land which was situated by the eastern bank of the Nile, supposed by the Egyptians to be the original home of the gods. Figures of this god in bronze and faience are very common, and they represent him as described above. Faience figures were made as much as fourteen inches long,


and were sometimes in relief and sometimes "in the round."
The British Museum possesses a large mould (No. 20,883)
used for making flat figures, presented by F. G. Hilton
Price, F.S.A., who obtained it from Bubastis; it also possesses
a beautiful figure in the round in blue glazed faience
(No. 28,112), about fourteen inches high. A remarkable
example of the use of the head and face of this god is
furnished by a bronze bell in the British Museum (No. 6374).
The plumes on his head form the handle, and the head,
hollowed out, forms the bell. Bronze and faience statues
of this god, to which have been added the distinguishing
characteristics of many other gods,
also exist. B.M. No. 17,169 is a
bronze ithyphallic bird with two pairs
of outstretched wings and the legs of
a man, from the knees of which spring
serpents, the arms of a man, and the
head of Bes. Above the wings is a
second pair of outstretched arms, with
clenched fists, and on each side of his
head, in relief, are the heads of a ram,
a dog-headed ape, a crocodile, and a
hawk (?). Above the head are two
pairs of horns, two pairs of uraei and
two pairs of plumes, between which
is a disk. In this figure are united
the attributes of Amen-Ra, Amsu,
Horus, Chnemu, Sebek, and other
gods. No. 1205, a bronze cast from
a genuine bronze, makes this poly-
theistic figure stand upon crocodiles; the whole group is
enclosed within a serpent having his tail in his mouth. A
very interesting example of a similar kind of figure in faience
is described by Lanzone in his Dizionario, p. 211, tav. lxxx.,
and compare B.M. No. 11,821. It need hardly be said that
such figures belong to a very late period, and they are found
imitated on gems inscribed for the Gnostics ; see B.M. Nos.
G. 10, 11, 12, 151, 205, etc. On the Metternich stele Bes is
represented in much the same way as in the bronze figures,



Various forms of Bes.

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