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as he says, “kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven
Hequ-shaåsu” or “princes of the Shaásu” would be a name such as we might expect the Egyptians to bestow upon the invaders, just as they spoke of Heq Chetu, “Prince of Cheta.”
The kings belonging to this period, made known to us by the Egyptian monuments, are Apepå I., Åpepå II., and Nubti. Of Apepå I. very little is known, but of Apepå II. a number of monuments remain, and among others one which records the submission to him of a number of Ethiopian tribes. Bar-Hebraeus relates that there “reigned in Egypt the fourth king of the Shepherds called Apapus, fourteen years.
· Josephus, Contra Apion, i. 14. translated by Whiston, p. 610.
It was this king who dreamed dreams, and who made Joseph Joseph in ruler - according to the writings of Chaldeans — and it
Egypt. seems that these kings were called "Shepherd Kings because of Joseph's brethren." It is known from a granite stele? found at Tanis, a city formerly inhabited by the Apepå kings, that the four hundredth year from the reign of Nubti fell in the reign of Rameses II. Dr. Birch, Wiedemanno and other Egyptologists, compare this period of 400 years with the 430 years of the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and, as Israel in the Exodus probably took place during the reign of the Egypt. immediate successor of Rameses II., we may assume that the statement of Bar-Hebraeus was based on some trustworthy tradition. It has also been pertinently remarked that it would be easier for Joseph to hold high office under the Shepherd Joseph and
the "Shepkings than under the rule of an ancient hereditary aristocracy. herd The Shepherd kings worshipped a god called Sut or Sutech, Kings.” who was to the Egyptians a veritable abomination. They lived in the cities of Tanis and Avaris, on the east side of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile. They adopted the manners and customs and writing of the Egyptians, and whatever may have been their severity when they first began to rule, they were of great service to the Egyptians. It is doubtful, however, how far south their rule extended. The names of a number of kings whom Wiedemann attributes to this period are to be found in his Geschichte, pp. 295–297.
The kings of the XVIIth dynasty were of Theban origin, The kings and are famous as those who defeated the Shepherd kings and of Thebes expelled them. According to Manetho, “under a king whose expel the name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt,
i goed ontelo köfu sobu? w0104_1 L01 : lioosoil Lio ? : !
. : )
ܐ ܘܐܡܠܟܗܘܐ ܟܡܨܪܝܢ ܡܠܟܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܐܪܟܥܐ ܕܪ̈ܥܘܬܐ ܐܦܦܘܣ
ܐܝܟ ܡܟܬܒ̈ܢܘܬܐ ܕܟܠܕ̈ܝܐ: ܘܕܡܝܐ ܕܡܛܠ ܐܶܚ̈ܘܗܝ ܕܝܘܩܦ ܐܫܬܡܥܗܘ ܗܠܝܢ ܡܠܟ̈ܐ: ܡܠܟ̈ܐ ܕܪ̈ܥܘܬܐ.
| Ed. Bruns, p. 14, at the top ; ed. Bedjan, p. 13, at the top.
Aeg. Geschichte, p. 294.
but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand
be done them, whithersoever they would ; and that, after
families and effects, not fewer in number than 240,000, and
British Museum which treats of Åpepå and the native Theban
Egypt belonged to her foes and had no king, although
· Contra Apion. I. 14, Whiston's translation, p. 611.
Seqenen-Rā was called Baba, the son of Re-ánt, and he had a son called Åāḥmes who was born in the city of Eileithyia. Aāḥmes
the This Åāḥmes became an officer on board a ship of war called
general. the “North,” and in the inscription on the walls of his tomb it is said that he went with the king to besiege the city of Avaris. He was next promoted to a ship called Chā-emMennefer, and he took part in the battle fought upon the canal of Pat'etku of Avaris. Here he performed mighty deeds of valour, and he distinctly says, “We took Avaris, and I carried off as captives from thence one man and three women, in all four heads."i The war of independence begun Egyptians by Seqenen-Rā II., was brought to a successful issue by Hyksos. Àāḥmes or Amāsis I., and Egypt was delivered. Seqenen-Rā probably lost his life in battle with the enemy, and must in any case have been seriously wounded, judging by the smashed skull and broken bones which his mummy exhibits.
Àāḥmes I., son of Ka-mes and his wife Àāḥhetep, was the first king of the XVIIIth dynasty, and the first native ruler of all Egypt for a period of about five hundred years. Having captured Avaris, Amasis marched into Asia, where he captured the town of Sharhana, the more of Joshua xix. 6, and made himself master of the land of T'ahi. Returning Egyptian to Egypt he marched into Nubia and defeated several tribes conquests
in Asia and who had rebelled systematically for many years past. Nubia. Having made the borders of his country safe from invasion, Amasis began to build at Memphis and Thebes and other places. Thebes, the home of the kings who had expelled the Hyksos, became the first town in Egypt, and Amen-Rā, who hitherto had enjoyed the reputation of a mere local god, became the head of Egyptian deities. Amenophis. I., son of 1666 Amāsis I., marched into Nubia, and brought it into subjection to him, and in the north of Egypt he defeated a people called the Āāmu-kehak. In the reign of this king the horse is first represented on the monuments.
1 Records of the Past, VI. p. 8.
Limits of Egyptian territory in
or ܒܶܝܬ ܢܰܗܪܺܝܢ compare) ܐ-Nelker
Thothmes I., like his father Amenophis I., marched into
Thothmes II. married his sister Hatshepset and became
| The office of “Prince of Cush" is first mentioned in the reign of Thothmes I.