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Babylonian art.

but in the pair of outstretched arms and hands he holds sceptres of |j, |, knives, etc., and in those

which hang by his side he holds | and ^ ; he has on his

head in addition eight knives and the figure ^ "myriads of years." He stands on an oval in which are a lion, two serpents, a jackal, crocodile, scorpion, hippopotamus and tortoise. This scene is repeated very accurately on a Gnostic Iapis-lazuli plaque in the British Museum, No. 12, on the back of which is an address to IAU) ZABAW0 = JTINl? PP with whom this polytheistic deity was identified. Figures of the god Bes are common on gems and seals other than Egyptian, and on a small Babylonian cylinder in the possession of Sir Charles Nicholson he is represented in the

Bes in form in which he ordinarily occurs J^. On a red carnelian

cylinder in the British Museum ^Reg. No. 6^3J he is engraved, full face, wearing plumes, and holding a lotus flower in each hand; on each side of him is a male bearded figure, with upraised hands and arms, supporting a winged disk. This seal was inscribed for Arsaces, and belongs to the Persian period.

Sechet ^°^j> also written ^D ^j, was the wife of Ptah,

and was, in this capacity, the mother of Nefer-Atmu and I-cm-hetep; she was the second person of the triad of Memphis. She represented the violent heat of the sun and its destroying power, and in this capacity destroyed the souls of the wicked in the underworld. In bronze and faience figures she has the head of a lion, upon which she wears the

disk and uraeus, and she holds in her right hand and J in her left; she is sometimes seated, when her hands are laid upon her knees.

Bast jj^Jj represents the heat of the sun in its softened

form as the producer of vegetation. She has often the head of a lion, but, properly speaking, the head of a cat is her distinguishing characteristic; in her right hand she holds a

sistrum, on her left arm she carries a basket, and in her left
hand she holds an aegis. She was chiefly worshipped at The Lady
Bubastis, Pa-Bast, where a magnificent temple was built in tis.Bubas"
her honour. Bronze figures of this goddess
are tolerably numerous, and she is repre-
sented, both sitting and standing, wearing the
disk and uraeus on her head. In faience,
standing figures hold a sceptre (B.M. No. 236),
or (B.M. No. 233), or an aegis (B.M.

No. 11,297); when seated she often holds a
sistrum, B.M. No. 272; a fine large example
of the goddess seated is B.M. No. 277. Such
figures are sometimes inscribed with the
prayer, "may she grant all life and power,
all health, and joy of heart," i>~~° Y 1
y j ^A^1' or- UI am Bast, the lady

^ [j (j o represented the

power of light or heat, or both; in faience
she is represented as an upright woman,
walking, having a lion's head, upon which she wears a disk

and uraeus; in her right hand is ■y, and in her left J

^, the " mother," was the wife of Amen, and the The

) V) universal

second member of the Theban triad; she is called the "lady mother, of Asher," h' tne name gjven to a district to the

south of the great temple of Amen-Ra at Karnak, where her temple was situated. She symbolized Nature, the mother of all things. In bronze and faience figures she is represented as a woman, seated or standing, wearing a head-dress in the form of a vulture, surmounted by the crowns of Upper and

Lower Egypt; she holds in her right hand, and J in her left.

or Neith, the " Weaver or "Shooter," was a The La<,y






counterpart of the goddess Mut, and was also identified with B. M. U

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Hathor; she wears the crown of Lower Egypt ^ on her

head, and she is often represented armed with bow and arrows. In bronze and faience figures of this goddess are tolerably common.

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The god- Maat , the " daughter of Ra and mistress of the

dess of 0 Vi

Right. gods," symbolized Law, and she is always represented with

j) maat, emblematic of Law, upon her head; in papyri two

Maat are shown together, each wearing ^, but sometimes

this feather alone takes the place of the head. In figures of bronze, lapis-lazuli, and faltence she is represented sitting down.

Hathor, in Egyptian j^j, or [^j ^ ^ Het-Hert, the

"house of Horus," is identified with Nut, the sky, or place in which she brought forth and suckled Horus; she was the wife of Atmu, a form of Ra. She is represented as a woman cow-headed, with horns and a disk between them, and shares with Isis and Mut many of their attributes.1 She is often represented as a cow coming forth from the mountain of the west. The worship of Hathor is exceedingly ancient, and The godshe was supposed to be the goddess of beauty, love, and joy, fine art. and the benefactress of the world. The forms2 in which she is depicted on the monuments are as numerous as the aspects from which she could be regarded. Full length figures of this goddess in bronze and faltence are comparatively few,3 but plaques and pendants of faience upon which her head is inscribed or painted are common.

For a fine example in bronze of Hathor, cow-headed, wearing horns, disk, uraeus and plumes, see B.M. No. 22,925. The British Museum also possesses two interesting bronze hollowwork portions of menats in which Hathor is represented in

1 A list of the gods with whom she is identified is given in Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 863, 864.

s On a pendant, B.M. No. 302, she is represented at full length, in relief. 'For a fine example, see B.M. No. 22,925.

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profile. No. 20,760 shows the goddess wearing an uraeus on her forehead, and four uraei on her head; she has the usual head-dress of women falling over her shoulders. Beneath is a Hathor-headed sistrum, with pendent uraei, resting on fSS^. Beneath in an oval is the cow of Hathor, wearing \«y,

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