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he holds (B.M. No. 1442), and sometimes a goat (B.M. No. 11,910).

2. Hippopotamus o S ., Ta-urt, Thoueris, standing on the hind-quarters of a lion, and holding the tail of a crocodile ; figures in bronze and faïence are common. The most beautiful example of this composite animal in green basalt is preserved in the Museum at Gîzeh, a cast of which is exhibited in the Egyptian Gallery of the British Museum, No. 1075.

3. Cow, sacred to Hathor, with disk between her horns,

4. Lion Ag, couchant or running, sacred to Horus. Examples are very common in faïence. Frequently the body of the lion has a lion's head at each end of it, and sometimes there is a lion's head at one end, and a bull's head at the other; on the back, between the two heads, is the disk of the sun, $, the whole representing the sun on the horizon O. The two heads, facing in opposite directions, are supposed to represent the south and north, i.e., the sun's course daily. An example in which each lion's head has two faces, one looking towards the south and the other towards the north, is figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. cvi.

5. Sphinx o, couchant or sitting on his haunches, sacred to Harmachis. Figures in bronze and faïence are tolerably common.



6. Bull sacred to Apis or Mnevis, having disk and uræus between his horns, and the figures of a vulture with outspread wings and a winged scarab on his back. Figures in bronze and stone are more common than in faïence.

7. Ram, n, sacred to Chnemu or Amen-Rā; figures in bronze and faïence are tolerably common. , sacred to Bast, lady of Bubastis. Large Animals

sacred to votive figures of the cat were made of bronze and wood, the the gods. eyes being inlaid with obsidian and gold; B.M. No. 22,927 has the eyes, and a large number of the hairs of the body, inlaid with gold. The smaller figures worn for ornament by the votaries of Bast are made of bronze, stone, rock-crystal, faïence, &c. ; in the smaller figures the cat is represented with one, two, or more kittens, and the top of the sceptre is often ornamented with a cat.

9. Jackal t, sacred to Ånpu (Anubis), or to Åp-uat. In bronze figures, which are plentiful, he stands on a pedestal which fitted on to the top of a sceptre or staff; faïence figures are not very common. A large number of wooden models from the top of sepulchral boxes are known.

10. Hare B , sacred to Osiris Unnefer; figures in farence are common.

11. Sow S35, sacred to Set (?), was the abomination of Horus l. RS M D mm , according to the 112th chapter of the Book of the Dead ; figures of this animal in faïence are fairly common. B.M. No. 11,897 has a head at each end of its body.

12. Hippopotamus Izs, sacred to Set or Typhon ; many large and beautiful examples of this animal in glazed faïence and steatite exist in public and private collections.

13. Stag Figures in which the animal is represented with its legs tied together ready for sacrifice are known in bronze, e.g., B.M. No. 1696.

14. Hedgehog, a few examples of which, in bronze and faïence, are known.

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15. Shrew-mouse, sacred to Horus (?), examples of which are commoner in bronze than in faïence.

16. Ichneumon. Examples in bronze, in which the animal wears disk and horns and plumes, are known, but figures in faïence are rare.

17. Crocodile su, sacred to Sebek ; examples in bronze

and faïence are fairly common. Birds 18. Vulture , sacred to Mut ; figures of this bird in the gods. bronze and faïence are few.

19. Hawk , sacred to Horus ; votive figures are made of bronze, stone, and wood, and the hawk wears either the crown of Upper or Lower Egypt, or both crowns united. In smaller figures worn for ornament, it wears a disk (B.M. No. 1889) (B.M. No. 1850), or plumes (B.M. No. 1859); it is often man-headed, when it represents the soul,

s, and sometimes two hawks are on one pedestal, and each has the head of a man. A form of Horus, worshipped in Arabia under the name of Sept 18, is often found in hard stone and wood ; figures made of the latter material are generally found on the small chests which cover the portions of human bodies placed in the pedestals of Ptah-Seker-Ausår figures. When complete they have plumes on their heads. 20. I

sacred to Thoth ; figures in bronze and faïence are not rare.

21. Frog and Toad. Figures of both reptiles are common in bronze and faïence.

22. Fish B . The five kinds of fish of which figures in bronze and faïence are known are the Oxyrhynchus, Phagrus, Latus, Silurus, and the Lepidotus; of these the Oxyrhynchus, Silurus, and Lepidotus are the commonest. The Oxyrhynchus fish, B.M. No. 1953, has on its back horns, disk, and uræus ; fish were sacred to Hathor, Isis, Mut, and other goddesses.





23. Scorpion 34, sacred to Serqet. Figures in bronze have often a woman's head on which are horns and disk, and if mounted, the sides of the base have inscriptions upon them which show that the scorpion was regarded as Isis-Serqet. Faïence figures of this reptile are tolerably numerous.

Uræus 2 or serpent, sacred to or emblem of Mehen, q ,or Merseķer, Sno Pn; figures in bronze and

La faïence are not rare.

Scarab , emblem of the god Cheperå (see p. 234). The largest scarab known is preserved in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 74), and is made of green granite ; it was probably a votive offering in some temple, and was brought from Constantinople, whither it was probably taken after the Roman occupation of Egypt. The scarabs worn for ornament round the neck, and in finger-rings, were made of gold, silver, every kind of precious stone known to the Egyptians, and faïence. B.M. No. 11,630 is an interesting example of a horned scarab; B.M. No. 2043, in faïence, has the head of a hawk, and B.M. No. 12,040 has the head of a bull.

FIGURES OF KINGS AND PRIVATE PERSONS. Figures of kings and private persons were placed in temples or tombs either by the persons they represented, or by those who wished to do honour to them. Figures of Uses of kings occupied prominent places in the temples, and services stalues. were performed before them, and offerings made to them as to the gods, among the number of whom kings were supposed to have entered. The Rosetta Stone states (11. 39-42) that the priests of all Egypt decreed that a figure or statue of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, should be placed in the most conspicuous part of every temple, that the priests should thrice daily perform services before it, and that sacred decorations should be placed upon it. The custom of placing such figures in temples and tombs is as old as the IVth dynasty at least, for many examples of this period are known; as we are certain that religious services were held in tombs during

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