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as he says, “kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven
years. On the whole it seems that these observations of
Manetho are correct. of Salatis, the first Hyksos king,
nothing is known historically, and there are no monuments
known which can correctly be asserted to be the work of the
kings of the first Hyksos dynasty. The country from which
the Hyksos came, also, is unknown. Some Egyptologists
consider the Hyksos to be Cushites, and some think they
are to be identified with the Accadians; others, again,
believe them to be Phænicians or Semites. The features of
the statues that have come down to us which are attributed
to the Hyksos, have the following characteristics : The eyes
are comparatively small, the nose is broad but aquiline, the
cheek bones are prominent and the cheeks thick, the mouth is
broad, the lips thick, and the chin protrudes slightly. From
these facts some have stated decidedly that the Hyksos
cannot have been Semites, but it must be proved that the
monuments attributed to the Hyksos were really made by
them, before this question can be considered to be definitively
disposed of. Of the two meanings of the name Hyksos put
forth by Josephus, the first being Manetho's explanation, and
the second that of Josephus, based on another copy of
Manetho's work seen by him, the former seems to be the
more correct, and we may perhaps give the Egyptian

it. The Shaásu are a well known enemy of Egypt, who
came from the deserts east and north-east of Egypt, and

Hequ-shaåsu” or “princes of the Shaásu” would be a name such as we might expect the Egyptians to bestow upon the invaders, just as they spoke of Heq Chetu, “Prince of Cheta.”

The kings belonging to this period, made known to us by the Egyptian monuments, are Apepå I., Åpepå II., and Nubti. Of Apepå I. very little is known, but of Apepå II. a number of monuments remain, and among others one which records the submission to him of a number of Ethiopian tribes. Bar-Hebraeus relates that there “reigned in Egypt the fourth king of the Shepherds called Apapus, fourteen years.

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· Josephus, Contra Apion, i. 14. translated by Whiston, p. 610.

It was this king who dreamed dreams, and who made Joseph Joseph in ruler - according to the writings of Chaldeans — and it

Egypt. seems that these kings were called "Shepherd Kings because of Joseph's brethren." It is known from a granite stele? found at Tanis, a city formerly inhabited by the Apepå kings, that the four hundredth year from the reign of Nubti fell in the reign of Rameses II. Dr. Birch, Wiedemanno and other Egyptologists, compare this period of 400 years with the 430 years of the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and, as Israel in the Exodus probably took place during the reign of the Egypt. immediate successor of Rameses II., we may assume that the statement of Bar-Hebraeus was based on some trustworthy tradition. It has also been pertinently remarked that it would be easier for Joseph to hold high office under the Shepherd Joseph and

the "Shepkings than under the rule of an ancient hereditary aristocracy. herd The Shepherd kings worshipped a god called Sut or Sutech, Kings.” who was to the Egyptians a veritable abomination. They lived in the cities of Tanis and Avaris, on the east side of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile. They adopted the manners and customs and writing of the Egyptians, and whatever may have been their severity when they first began to rule, they were of great service to the Egyptians. It is doubtful, however, how far south their rule extended. The names of a number of kings whom Wiedemann attributes to this period are to be found in his Geschichte, pp. 295–297.

The kings of the XVIIth dynasty were of Theban origin, The kings and are famous as those who defeated the Shepherd kings and of Thebes expelled them. According to Manetho, “under a king whose expel the name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt,

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ܐ ܘܐܡܠܟܗܘܐ ܟܡܨܪܝܢ ܡܠܟܐ ܗ̇ܘ ܕܐܪܟܥܐ ܕܪ̈ܥܘܬܐ ܐܦܦܘܣ

ܐܝܟ ܡܟܬܒ̈ܢܘܬܐ ܕܟܠܕ̈ܝܐ: ܘܕܡܝܐ ܕܡܛܠ ܐܶܚ̈ܘܗܝ ܕܝܘܩܦ ܐܫܬܡܥܗܘ ܗܠܝܢ ܡܠܟ̈ܐ: ܡܠܟ̈ܐ ܕܪ̈ܥܘܬܐ.

| Ed. Bruns, p. 14, at the top ; ed. Bedjan, p. 13, at the top.
? An English translation is given by Birch in Records of the Past, V., p. 33 ff.
3 Egypt, p. 76.

Aeg. Geschichte, p. 294.


but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand
acres : this place was named Avaris.” Manetho says that
“the Shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a
large and strong wall, and this in order to keep all their
possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that
Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt
to take them by force and by siege with 480,000 men to lie
round about them ; but that, upon his despair of taking the
place by that siege, they came to a composition with them,
that they should leave Egypt, and go without any harm to

be done them, whithersoever they would ; and that, after
Retreat of this composition was made, they went away with their whole

families and effects, not fewer in number than 240,000, and
took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for
Syria : but that, as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who
had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that
country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to
contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem.” 1
Of more value than this account of Josephus for the expulsion
of the Shepherd kings, is the mutilated papyrus’ in the

British Museum which treats of Åpepå and the native Theban
Seqenen. king Tau-āa-qen or Seqenen-Rā III. According to it,

Egypt belonged to her foes and had no king, although
Seqenen-Rā, who is described as a heq or prince, was master
of a town in the south. Åpepå received tribute from all parts
of the Delta, and part of it he devoted to building temples to
his god Set. He wished all Egypt, both south and north, to
worship this god, and to pay tribute to himself, and he sent
a messenger from Avaris to Thebes requiring Seqenen-Rā to
worship Set alone. This king returned answer saying that
he could worship no god but Amen-Rā. Some time after
another messenger of Apepå arrived with threats, which
caused Seqenen-Rā much trouble, and he gathered together
his generals and councillors to decide upon a plan of action.
What the decision was the mutilated state of the papyrus
prevents us from knowing, but there is no doubt about the
ultimate result of their deliberations. One of the officers of

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· Contra Apion. I. 14, Whiston's translation, p. 611.
. For the text see Select Papyri, ed. Birch, pl. 2.

Seqenen-Rā was called Baba, the son of Re-ánt, and he had a son called Åāḥmes who was born in the city of Eileithyia. Aāḥmes

the This Åāḥmes became an officer on board a ship of war called

general. the “North,” and in the inscription on the walls of his tomb it is said that he went with the king to besiege the city of Avaris. He was next promoted to a ship called Chā-emMennefer, and he took part in the battle fought upon the canal of Pat'etku of Avaris. Here he performed mighty deeds of valour, and he distinctly says, “We took Avaris, and I carried off as captives from thence one man and three women, in all four heads."i The war of independence begun Egyptians by Seqenen-Rā II., was brought to a successful issue by Hyksos. Àāḥmes or Amāsis I., and Egypt was delivered. Seqenen-Rā probably lost his life in battle with the enemy, and must in any case have been seriously wounded, judging by the smashed skull and broken bones which his mummy exhibits.


B.C. 1700

Àāḥmes I., son of Ka-mes and his wife Àāḥhetep, was the first king of the XVIIIth dynasty, and the first native ruler of all Egypt for a period of about five hundred years. Having captured Avaris, Amasis marched into Asia, where he captured the town of Sharhana, the more of Joshua xix. 6, and made himself master of the land of T'ahi. Returning Egyptian to Egypt he marched into Nubia and defeated several tribes conquests

in Asia and who had rebelled systematically for many years past. Nubia. Having made the borders of his country safe from invasion, Amasis began to build at Memphis and Thebes and other places. Thebes, the home of the kings who had expelled the Hyksos, became the first town in Egypt, and Amen-Rā, who hitherto had enjoyed the reputation of a mere local god, became the head of Egyptian deities. Amenophis. I., son of 1666 Amāsis I., marched into Nubia, and brought it into subjection to him, and in the north of Egypt he defeated a people called the Āāmu-kehak. In the reign of this king the horse is first represented on the monuments.

1 Records of the Past, VI. p. 8.



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Thothmes I., like his father Amenophis I., marched into
Nubia’ and defeated the rebel tribes; he made the people
slaves and carried off much spoil to Thebes. Soon after his
return to Thebes he set out with his army on an expedition
to Mesopotamia, passing through the Arabian desert and
Palestine by the way, and finally arrived on the banks of the
Euphrates and Tigris. This expedition was the last in which
the officer Åāhmes took part, and he again distinguished
himself by his personal bravery as on former occasions. To
commemorate this expedition Thothmes I. set up two stelæ
near the Euphrates to mark the limits of Egyptian territory.
It would seem that no Egyptian king ever possessed per-
manent hold upon the country of Mesopotamia,

that Egypt only held even a nominal dominion over it as
long as each king on his accession marched into the country
to terrify the nomad tribes afresh, and to decide what amount
of tribute each petty king or head of a tribe should pay to
Egypt. The governors of cities in Mesopotamia and Ruthen,
or Syria, made treaties among themselves and planned wars
against each other, or a common foe, without any reference
to the authority of Egypt over them. Each king of Assyria,
if he wished to maintain his authority, found it necessary on
his accession, or soon after, to undertake a series of military
expeditions to punish the peoples who, on the death of a
king, always revolted. If this were necessary for a power
actually resident in Mesopotamia, how much more necessary
would it be for a remote and shadowy power like that of
Egypt. Thothmes I. continued the buildings at Thebes, and
set up two granite obelisks. Towards the end of his reign he
associated his daughter Maāt-ka-Rā, or Ħāt-shepset, with
him in the rule of the kingdom.

Thothmes II. married his sister Hatshepset and became
king of Egypt. The tribes of Nubia were again re-conquered,
and the Shaåsu were once more defeated. After a short reign,
the greater part of which was occupied in continuing the
buildings at Karnak, the king died and Hātshepset his sister-


| The office of “Prince of Cush" is first mentioned in the reign of Thothmes I.

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