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flat, for the face of each course of masonry, formed of stones laid vertically, is a little behind the one beneath it, and if these recesses were a little deeper, the external appearance of each side of the building would resemble a flight of steps. The stones which form the mastabas are of a moderate size, and with the exception of those used for the ceiling and architrave, have an average height of 18 or 20 inches. The Plan and height and length of the mastaba vary; the largest measures SSfaSifc about 170 feet long by 86 feet wide, and the smallest about 26 feet long by 20 feet wide; they vary in height from 13 to 30 feet. The ground at Sakkarah is formed of calcareous rock covered to the depth of a few feet with sand; the foundations of the mastabas are always on the solid rock. The plan of the mastaba is a rectangle, and the greater axis of the rectangle is, without exception, in the direction from north to south. Moreover, at the pyramids of Gizeh, where the mastabas are arranged symmetrically, the plan of their arrangement is like a chess-board, the squares of which are uni- J| formly elongated towards the north. Mastabas then are oriented astronomically

towards the true north, and in the cases where they are a few degrees out, this difference must be attributed not to design but to negligence. It has been asserted that mastabas are only unfinished pyramids, but properly considered, it is evident that they form a class of buildings by themselves, and that they have nothing in common with the pyramid, save in respect of being oriented towards the north, this orientation being the result, not of a studied imitation of the pyramid, but of a religious intention, which at this early period influenced the construction of all tombs, whatever their external form. The mastabas at Sakkarah are built of stone and brick; the stone employed is of two kinds, the one being very hard, and of a bluish-grey colour, and the other being comparatively soft, and of a yellowish colour. The bricks also are of two kinds, the

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6. Transverse section at the bottom of a serdab.

Orientation of mastabas. one yellowish, and the other black; both sorts were sun-dried only. The bricks of a yellowish colour seem to have been used entirely during the earliest dynasties, and the black ones only appear with the second half of the IVth dynasty. However carefully the outside of the mastaba was built, the inside is composed of sand, pieces of stone thrown in without design or arrangement, rubble, rubbish, etc., and but for the outside walls holding all together many of them must have perished long since. The eastern face of the mastaba is the most important, for, four times out of five, the entrance

7. The upper chamber, the small architectural facade, in the pit, and the sarcophagus centre of which is a door. When

at the south-east corner which has just been described, the mastaba has no interior chamber, for this opening takes its place. When the mastaba has the facade in the place of the opening, there is a chamber within. When the entrance to the mastaba is made on the north side, the facade is brought back to the end of a kind of vestibule, and at the front of this vestibule are set up two monolithic columns, without abacus, and without base, which support the architrave, which supports the ceiling. The entrance to the mastaba is

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is in it; it is sometimes, but very rarely, bare. Some yards from the north-east corner is, at times, a very high, narrow opening, at the bottom of which the masonry of the mastaba itself assumes the form of long vertical grooves, which distinguish the stelae of this epoch; a stele, with or without inscription, sometimes takes the place of this opening. At a distance of some feet from the south-east corner is generally another opening, but larger, deeper and more carefully made; at the bottom of this is sometimes a fine inscribed calcareous stone stele, and sometimes a

chamber of a Mastaba.

the eastern face has the opening sometimes made from the south, but never from the west; the top of the mastaba is quite flat.

The interior of the complete mastaba consists of three The parts, the chamber, the serdab, and the pit. Having entered Camber, the Chamber by the door in the side, it is found to be either without any ornamentation whatever, or to be covered with sculptures. At the bottom of the chamber usually facing the

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east, is a stele, which, whether the walls are inscribed or not, is always inscribed. At the foot of the stele, on the bare ground, is often a table of offerings made of granite, alabaster, or calcareous stone; two obelisks, or two supports for offerings, are often found at each side of this table. Besides these things the chamber has no furniture, and it rarely has a door. B. M. Y

Not far from the chamber, oftencr to the south than to the north, and oftener to the north than to the west, is a lofty but narrow nook hidden in the thickness of the masonry, and built with large stones ; this nook is called the Serd&b.1 Sometimes Use of the serdab has no communication whatever with the other the serdab. parts of the mastaba, but sometimes a rectangular passage, so

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9. Figures in relief in a Mastaba at Gizeh. Vth dynasty.

narrow that the hand can only be inserted with difficulty, leads from the serdab into the chamber; in the serdab statues of the deceased were placed and the narrow passage served

*KscrdAb, c-jlj^, strictly speaking, is a lofty, vaulted, subterranean chamber, with a large opening in the north side to admit air in the hot weather.

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