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286 Alexandrian Library founded. Septuagint made.
Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, built the Pharos, founded Berenice on the Red Sea, and Arsinoë; he employed Manetho to compile a history of Egypt and its gods from native authorities, and caused the Greek version of the Old Testament to be made.
Ptolemy III., Euergetes I.
Ptolemy IX., Euergetes II. or Physcon, reigned conjointly with Ptolemy VII. (B.C. 170—165).
Ptolemy X., Soter II., Philometor II., or Lathyrus reigned conjointly with Cleopatra III. ; he was banished B.C. 106, and recalled B.C. 87.
Ptolemy XI., Alexander I., made co-regent. banished B.C. 89 and slain B.C. 87.
Ptolemy XII., Alexander II., is slain.
Ptolemy XIII., Neos Dionysos or Auletes, became king of Egypt; he died B.C. 52.
Ptolemy XIV., Dionysos II., banished his co-regent Cleopatra VII., Cæsar arrived in Egypt to support Cleopatra, and Ptolemy XIV. was drowned.
Ptolemy XV., brother of Cleopatra VII., appointed her coregent ; he was murdered at her wish.
Ptolemy XVI., Cæsarion, was named co-regent.
Antony ordered Cleopatra to appear before him, and was seduced by her charms; he killed himself, and Cleopatra died by the bite of an asp.
ROMANS. Cæsar Augustus became master of the Roman Empire, and Cornelius Gallus the first prefect of Egypt ; under the third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, invaded Egypt, but was defeated.
42 Death of Cleopatra.
Egypt be. comes a Roman Province.
Tiberius. In his reign Germanicus went to Egypt, sailing up the Nile from the city of Canopus to Thebes, where he visited the temples of Luxor and Karnak, and heard the priest read on the pylons the names of conquered nations which still exist on them by the score. Passing over to the other side of the river, Tacitus tells us (II., 61) that he saw the stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's rays, gave out the sound of a human voice, and there is little Germani.
cus travels doubt that he visited the Tombs of the Kings, the Ramesseum
through and the temples at Medînet Habû. He passed on to Syene, Egypt. where he visited the island of Elephantine, and either going up or coming down the river, he saw Lake Moeris and the Pyramids. Caligula.
41 Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached in 55 Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the Blemmyes southern frontier of Egypt.
Egypt. Vespasian. Jerusalem destroyed, A.D. 70.
69 Domitian builds temples to Isis and Serapis at Rome.
82 Trajan. The Amnis Trajanus, or canal which joined the Nile and Red Sea, re-opened. Hadrian. He visited Egypt twice.
117 Marcus Aurelius.
180 Septimius Severus.
193 Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number of young men to be massacred in Alexandria. Macrinus.
253 Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, invaded Egypt.
268 Aurelian. Zenobia dethroned A.D. 273.
276 Diocletian. “Pompey's Pillar” erected A.D. 302. The 284 Copts date the era of the Martyrs from the day of Diocletian's accession to the throne (August 29). Constantine the Great.
AD. 337 379
Theodosius I., the Great, proclaimed Christianity the religion of his empire.
395 408 450
474 481 527 610
Arcadius, Emperor of the East.
Marcianus. In this reign Silco invaded Egypt, with his
Heraclius expelled the Persians from Egypt after they had held it, under Chosroes, for ten years.
'Amr ibn el-Aşi conquers Egypt, and the country becomes Arab con- a part of the Muḥammadan empire for about nine hundred Égypt.
Selim I., of Constantinople, deposes Tūmân Bey, and
Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria, battle of the
Pyramids, and French fleet destroyed off Abukîr by the
English. 1801 The French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt. 1805 Muḥammad 'Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt. 1848 Ibrâhîm Pasha. 1849
Death of Muhammad 'Ali.
Said Pasha. During his reign the Balâk Museum was
founded, and the excavation of the Suez Canal began. 1863 Ismail, son of Ibrâhîm Pasha, made Khedive. Suez
Canal opened, 1869. 1882 Massacre of Europeans at Alexandria, bombardment of
the town by the English fleet in July ; Egypt was occupied
by English troops, and 'Arabi Pasha defeated. 1885
Murder of Gordon, and abandonment of the Sûdân. 1892 English troops continue to occupy Egypt.
LIST OF EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES AND THE DATES
ASSIGNED TO THEM BY EGYPTOLOGISTS.
3,892 3,639 3,338 3,124 2,840 2,744 2,592 2,522 2,674 2,565 2,423 2,380 2,136 2,167 2, 101 1,842 1,684 1,591 1,443 1,269
5,867 5,615 5,318 5,121 4,673 4,425 4,222 4,147 4,047 3,947 3,762 3,703 3,417 3,004 2,520 2,270 2,082 1,822 1,473 1,279
5,004 4,751 4,449 4,235 3,951 3,703 3,500 3,500 3,358
3,249 || 3,061
2,500 2,466 2,233
| Tanis XXI
| Thebes XXII Bubastis XXIII Tanis ...
1,830 1,740 1,651 1,575 1,269 1,170
1,700 1,400 1,200
787 } 729
716 685 525 525 399
404 398 377 339
1 Königsbuch, Berlin, 1858, Synoptische Tafeln, taf. 4-8. 2 L'Univers. Egypte Ancienne, Paris, 1839, p. 269. 3 Notice des Principaux Monuments du Musée à Boulaq, Paris, 1869, p. 15. 4 The Ancient Egyptians, ed. Birch, 1878, Vol. I, p. 28 ff. 5 Egypt under the Pharaohs, ed. 1880, Vol. II, pp. 341-346.