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PTOLEMIES. B.C. 305 Ptolemy I., Soter, son of Lagus, founded the Alexandrian

Library. 286 Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, built the Pharos, founded Alexan Berenice on the Red Sea, and Arsinoë; he employed Manetho drian .

to compile a history of Egypt and its gods from native authofounded.

rities, and caused the Greek version of the Old Testament Septuagint made.

to be made. 247 Ptolemy III., Euergetes I. 222 Ptolemy IV., Philopator, founded the temple of Edfû. 205 Ptolemy V., Epiphanes.

Prolemy VI., Eupator, died in this year. 182 Ptolemy VII., Philometor. 170 Ptolemy VIII., murdered by Physcon.

Ptolemy IX., Euergetes II. or Physcon, reigned conjointly

with Ptolemy VII. (B.C. 170—165). 117 Ptolemy X., Soter II., Philometor II., or Lathyrus reigned

conjointly with Cleopatra III. ; he was banished B.C. 106, and recalled B.C. 87.

Ptolemy XI., Alexander I., made co-regent. He was banished B.C. 89 and slain B.C. 87.

Ptolemy XII., Alexander II., is slain.

Ptolemy XIII., Neos Dionysos or Auletes, became king of Egypt; he died B.C. 52.

Ptolemy XIV., Dionysos II., banished his co-regent Cleopatra VII., Cæsar arrived in Egypt to support Cleopatra, and Ptolemy XIV. was drowned.

Ptolemy XV., brother of Cleopatra VII., appointed her coregent ; he was murdered at her wish.

Ptolemy XVI., Cæsarion, was named co-regent.

Antony ordered Cleopatra to appear before him, and was
Death of seduced by her charms; he killed himself, and Cleopatra died
Cleopatra.
by the bite of an asp.

ROMANS.
Cæsar Augustus became master of the Roman Empire,

and Cornelius Gallus the first prefect of Egypt ; under the comes a third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, Roman

invaded Egypt, but was defeated. Province.

Egypt be. A

A.D.

Tiberius. In his reign Germanicus went to Egypt, sailing 14 up the Nile from the city of Canopus to Thebes, where he visited the temples of Luxor and Karnak, and heard the priest read on the pylons the names of conquered nations which still exist on them by the score. Passing over to the other side of the river, Tacitus tells us (II., 61) that he saw the stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's rays, gave out the sound of a human voice, and there is little Germani.

cus travels. doubt that he visited the Tombs of the Kings, the Ramesseum Throtron and the temples at Medînet Habû. He passed on to Syene, Egypt. where he visited the island of Elephantine, and either going up or coming down the river, he saw Lake Moeris and the Pyramids.

Caligula.
Claudius.

41 Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached in 55 Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the

n the Blemmyes southern frontier of Egypt.

Egypt.
Vespasian. Jerusalem destroyed, A.D. 70.
Domitian builds temples to Isis and Serapis at Rome.

Trajan. The Amnis Trajanus, or canal which joined the
Nile and Red Sea, re-opened.

Hadrian. He visited Egypt twice.
Marcus Aurelius.
Commodus.
Septimius Severus.

Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number of 211 young men to be massacred in Alexandria.

Macrinus.
Elagabalus.
Decius.
Valerianus.
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, invaded Egypt.
Aurelian. Zenobia dethroned A.D. 273.
Probus.

Diocletian. “Pompey's Pillar” erected A.D. 302. The
Copts date the era of the Martyrs from the day of
Diocletian's accession to the throne (August 29).
Constantine the Great.

117

180

218

324

AD. 337 379

395 408

Constantius.

Theodosius I., the Great, proclaimed Christianity the religion of his empire.

BYZANTINES.
Arcadius, Emperor of the East.
Theodosius II.

Marcianus. In this reign Silco invaded Egypt, with his
Nubian followers.

Zeno.
Anastasius.
Justinian.

Heraclius expelled the Persians from Egypt after they had held it, under Chosroes, for ten years.

474

481 527

610

Egypt.

years.

MUHAMMADANS. 628 'Amr ibn el-'Âşi conquers Egypt, and the country becomes Arab con- a part of the Muḥammadan empire for about nine hundred quest of 1517

Selim I., of Constantinople, deposes Tūmân Bey, and

Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. 1798

Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria, battle of the Pyramids, and French fleet destroyed off Abukîr by the

English 1801 The French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt. 1805 Muḥammad 'Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt. 1848 Ibrâhîm Pasha. 1849 Death of Muḥammad ‘Ali. 1854 Said Pasha. During his reign the Balâk Museum was

founded, and the excavation of the Suez Canal began. 1863 Ismail, son of Ibrâhîm Pasha, made Khedive. Suez

Canal opened, 1869.

Massacre of Europeans at Alexandria, bombardment of the town by the English fleet in July ; Egypt was occupied by English troops, and 'Arabi Pasha defeated.

Murder of Gordon, and abandonment of the Sûdân. 1892 English troops continue to occupy Egypt.

1882

1885

LIST OF EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES AND THE DATES

ASSIGNED TO THEM BY EGYPTOLOGISTS.

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VI

4,751
4,449
4,235
3,951
3,703
3,500
3,500
3,358
3,249

3,300

3,100

5,867
5,615
5,318
5,121
4,673
4,425
4,222
4,147
4,047
3,947
3,762
3,703
3,417
3,004
2,520
2,270
2,082
1,822
1,473

|||||||||||

3,061 2,851

2,500 2,466 2,233

Chois ...

2,IOI

2,398 $2,214

Thinis... 3,892
Thinis... 3,639
Memphis

3,338
Memphis 3,124
Elephantine 2,840

Memphis 2,744
VII Memphis

2,592
VIII Memphis ... 2,522
IX Heracleopolis 2,674
X Heracleopolis 2,565
XI
Thebes

.. 2,423 XII Thebes

2,380 XIII Thebes

2,136 XIV

2,167
XV (Shepherds)
XVI (Shepherds) 1,842
XVII Thebes

1,684
XVIII
Thebes

1,591 XIX Thebes

1,443 XX Thebes

1,269 | Tanis XXI

|{1,091 | Thebes XXII Bubastis XXIII Tanis ...

| Saïs ... XXIV | Ethiopia

729 XXV Ethiopia

716 XXVI Sais...

685 XXVII Persia ...

525
XXVIII Sais...
XXIX Mendes
XXX Sebennytos
XXXI

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1,703 1,462 1,288

1,700 1,400

1,279

1,200

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1,110

980

971

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810 721

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1 Königsbuch, Berlin, 1858, Synoptische Tafeln, taf. 4-8. 2 L'Univers. Egypte Ancienne, Paris, 1839, p. 269. 3 Notice des Principaux Monuments du Musée à Boulaq, Paris, 1869, p. 15. 4 The Ancient Egyptians, ed. Birch, 1878, Vol. I, p. 28 ff. 5 Egypt under the Pharaohs, ed. 1880, Vol. II, pp. 341-346.

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