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Ptolemy I., Soter, son of Lagus, founded the Alexandrian Library.
Ptolemy II., Philadelphia, built the Pharos, founded Berenice on the Red Sea, and Arsinoe; he employed Manetho to compile a history of Egypt and its gods from native authorities, and caused the Greek version of the Old Testament to be made.
Ptolemy III., Euergetes I.
Ptolemy IV., Philopator, founded the temple of Edfu.
Ptolemy V., Epiphanes.
Ptolemy VI., Eupator, died in this year.
Ptolemy VII., Philometor.
Ptolemy VIII., murdered by Physcon.
Ptolemy IX., Euergetes II. or Physcon, reigned conjointly with Ptolemy VII. (B.C. 170—165).
Ptolemy X., Soter II., Philometor II., or Lathyrus reigned conjointly with Cleopatra III.; he was banished B.C. 106, and recalled B.C. 87.
Ptolemy XL, Alexander I., made co-regent. He was banished B.C. 89 and slain B.C. 87.
Ptolemy XII., Alexander II., is slain.
Ptolemy XIII., Neos Dionysos or Auletes, became king of Egypt; he died B.c 52.
Ptolemy XIV., Dionysos II., banished his co-regent Cleopatra VII., Caesar arrived in Egypt to support Cleopatra, and Ptolemy XIV. was drowned.
Ptolemy XV., brother of Cleopatra VII., appointed her coregent; he was murdered at her wish.
Ptolemy XVI., Caesarion, was named co-regent.
Antony ordered Cleopatra to appear before him, and was seduced by her charms; he killed himself, and Cleopatra died by the bite of an asp.
Caesar Augustus became master of the Roman Empire, and Cornelius Gallus the first prefect of Egypt; under the third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, invaded Egypt, but was defeated.
Tiberius. In his reign Germanicus went to Egypt, sailing 14 up the Nile from the city of Canopus to Thebes, where he visited the temples of Luxor and Karnak, and heard the priest read on the pylons the names of conquered nations which still exist on them by the score. Passing over to the other side of the river, Tacitus tells us (II., 61) that he saw the stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's
rays, gave out the sound of a human voice, and there is little Germani
doubt that he visited the Tombs of the Kings, the Ramesseum trough0'5
and the temples at Medinet Habu. He passed on to Syene, Egyptwhere he visited the island of Elephantine, and either going up or coming down the river, he saw Lake Moeris and the Pyramids.
Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached in 55
Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the ?'^JTMyes
southern frontier of Egypt EgyptVespasian. Jerusalem destroyed, A.D. 70. 69 Domitian builds temples to Isis and Serapis at Rome. 82 Trajan. The Amnis Trajanus, or canal which joined the 98
Nile and Red Sea, re-opened.
Hadrian. He visited Egypt twice. 117
Marcus Aurelius. 161
Septimius Severus. 193
Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number of 211
young men to be massacred in Alexandria.
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, invaded Egypt. 268
Aurelian. Zenobia dethroned A.D. 273. 270
Diocletian. "Pompey's Pillar" erected AD. 302. The 284
Copts date the era of the Martyrs from the day of
Diocletian's accession to the throne (August 29).
Constantine the Great. 324
379 Theodosius I., the Great, proclaimed Christianity the
religion of his empire.
395 Arcadius, Emperor of the East.
408 Theodosius II.
450 Marcianus. In this reign Silco invaded Egypt, with his
Nubian followers. 474 Zeno. 481 Anastasius. 527 Justinian.
610 Heraclius expelled the Persians from Egypt after they
had held it, under Chosroes, for ten years.
63g 'Amr ibn el-'Asi conquers Egypt, and the country becomes
Arab con- a part of the Muhammadan empire for about nine hundred
15x7 Selim I., of Constantinople, deposes Tuman Bey, and
Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria, battle of the
Pyramids, and French fleet destroyed off Abukir by the
1801 The French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt.
1805 Muhammad 'Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt.
1848 Ibrahim Pasha.
1849 Death of Muhammad 'Ali.
1854 Said Pasha. During his reign the Bulak Museum was
founded, and the excavation of the Suez Canal began.
1863 Ismail, son of Ibrahim Pasha, made Khedive. Suez
Canal opened, 1869.
1882 Massacre of Europeans at Alexandria, bombardment of
the town by the English fleet in July; Egypt was occupied by English troops, and 'Arabi Pasha defeated.
1885 Murder of Gordon, and abandonment of the Sudan.
1892 English troops continue to occupy Egypt.
List Of Egyptian Dynasties And The Dates Assigned To Them By Egyptologists.
1 Konigsbuch, Berlin, 1858, Synoptischt Tafcln, taf. 4-8.
2 V Univers. Egypte Ancicnne, Paris, 1839, p. 269.
3 Notice des Principaux Monuments du Music a Boulaq, Paris, 1869, p. 15.
4 The Ancient Egyptians, ed. Birch, 1878, Vol. I, p. 28 ff.
6 Egypt under the Pharaohs, ed. 1S80, Vol. II, pp. 341-346.