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LIST OF THE CARTOUCHES

OF THE PRINCIPAL

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

The oval ( a in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name; these are quite distinct from his titles, suten net, placed before the prenomen,

means "King of the North and South," and se Rd

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means "Son of the Sun." Other common titles are neb taut, "lord of two lands," ^ Horus, ^ "the golden Horus," ^£ "lord of diadems," $3 "mighty bull," "beautiful god,'' etc., etc. The title Pharaoh rriTjQ finds

per da, "great house." names were very simoften of the prenomen

its origin in ^j;, or nn> or In the early dynasties kings' pie in form, and consisted only. In addition to the pre- nomen and name a

king often had what is termed a "banner" name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; e.g.:

Heru ka neyt ur peh peh, "Horus, mighty bull, great of valour," formed the "banner" name of

Amenophis II.; ^0 *=■-=* ^ M| da %eperu Rd was

his prenomen; and ^ ( n-Q-i J Amen

hetep neter heq Annu, "Amenophis, god, prince of Heliopolis," was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult to translate.

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Het'efa.

* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.

t Though O Ra is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.

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Usr-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Ati.

Meri-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (I.).

Mer-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Heru-em-sa-f.

Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (II.).
Ra-mer-en-se (?)-cm-sa-f Neter-ka-Ra.

Men-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Netaqerti.

(Nitocris.)

Dynasties VII. And VIII., From Memphis; Dynasties

IX. AND X., FROM HERACLEOPOLIS, B.C. 31OO.

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