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LIST OF THE CARTOUCHES

OF THE PRINCIPAL

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

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а

The oval o in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name; these are quite distinct from his titles. 2 suten net, placed before the prenomen, means “ King of the North and South,” and to se means “Son of the Sun.” Other common titles are v a neb taui, lord of two lands,” A Horus, "the golden Horus,” A la “lord of diadems," fod “mighty bull,” 16 “ beautiful god," etc., etc. The title Pharaoh yung finds its origin in 5, or , or per āa, "great house." In the early dynasties kings' names were very simple in form, and consisted often of the prenomen only. In addition to the pre nomen and name a king often had what is termed a “banner" name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; e.g. :

Heru ka next ur peḥ peh, “Horus, mighty bull, great of valour," formed the “banner" name of Amenophis II. ; ( om a a xeperu was

U

his prenomen ; and

Атепļetep neter heq Annu, Amenophis, god, prince of

| Heliopolis," was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult to translate.

Dynasty* I., FROM THINIS, B.C. 4400. 1. 1

5. Mo (H )

Hesep-ti.

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Menå.

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* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience ; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.

+ Though O Rā is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.

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DYNASTY V., FROM ELEPHANTINE, B.C. 3366.

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Mer-en-Rā, son of the Sun, Heru-em-sa-f.
W COMU) 00191

Nefer-ka-Rā, son of the Sun, Pepi (II.). 49. Visa mer om rete) 50. 1183 094)

Rā-mer-en-se (?)-em-sa-f Neter-ka-Rā.

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Men-ka-Ră,

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DYNASTIES VII. AND VIII., FROM MEMPHIS; DYNASTIES

IX. AND X., FROM HERACLEOPOLIS, B.C. 3100.

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