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LIST OF THE CARTOUCHES
OF THE PRINCIPAL
The oval ( a in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name; these are quite distinct from his titles, suten net, placed before the prenomen,
means "King of the North and South," and se Rd
means "Son of the Sun." Other common titles are neb taut, "lord of two lands," ^ Horus, ^ "the golden Horus," ^£ "lord of diadems," $3 "mighty bull," "beautiful god,'' etc., etc. The title Pharaoh rriTjQ finds
per da, "great house." names were very simoften of the prenomen
its origin in ^j;, or nn> or In the early dynasties kings' pie in form, and consisted only. In addition to the pre- nomen and name a
king often had what is termed a "banner" name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; e.g.:—
Heru ka neyt ur peh peh, "Horus, mighty bull, great of valour," formed the "banner" name of
Amenophis II.; ^0 *=■-=* ^ M| da %eperu Rd was
his prenomen; and ^ ( n-Q-i J Amen
hetep neter heq Annu, "Amenophis, god, prince of Heliopolis," was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult to translate.
* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.
t Though O Ra is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.
Usr-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Ati.
Meri-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (I.).
Mer-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Heru-em-sa-f.
Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (II.).
Men-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Netaqerti.
Dynasties VII. And VIII., From Memphis; Dynasties
IX. AND X., FROM HERACLEOPOLIS, B.C. 31OO.