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LIST OF THE CARTOUCHES
OF THE PRINCIPAL
The oval o in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name; these are quite distinct from his titles. 2 suten net, placed before the prenomen, means “ King of the North and South,” and to se Rä means “Son of the Sun.” Other common titles are v a neb taui, “lord of two lands,” A Horus, "the golden Horus,” A la “lord of diadems," fod “mighty bull,” 16 “ beautiful god," etc., etc. The title Pharaoh yung finds its origin in 5, or , or per āa, "great house." In the early dynasties kings' names were very simple in form, and consisted often of the prenomen only. In addition to the pre nomen and name a king often had what is termed a “banner" name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; e.g. :
Heru ka next ur peḥ peh, “Horus, mighty bull, great of valour," formed the “banner" name of Amenophis II. ; ( om a a xeperu Rā was
his prenomen ; and
Атепļetep neter heq Annu, “ Amenophis, god, prince of
| Heliopolis," was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult to translate.
Dynasty* I., FROM THINIS, B.C. 4400. 1. 1
5. Mo (H )
* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience ; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.
+ Though O Rā is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.
DYNASTY V., FROM ELEPHANTINE, B.C. 3366. 35. XX (TM 36. 33 11D)