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under ground indeed, and the anger is hid, but it tends certainly to mischief; and though it be sometimes less deadly for want of opportunity, yet it is never less dangerous.

4. He that would communicate worthily, must so pardon his enemy, that though he be certain the man is in the wrong, and sinned against God in the cause, yet he must not, under pretence of righting God and religion, and the laws, pursue his own anger and revenge, and bring him to evil e. Every man is concerned, that evil be to him that loves it; but we cozen ourselves by thinking that we have nothing to do to pardon God's enemies, and vile persons. It is true, we have not, but neither hath any private man any thing to do to punish them; but he that cannot pardon God's enemy, can pray to God that he would: and it were better to let it all alone, than to destroy charity upon pretence of justice or religion. For if this wicked man were thy friend, it may very well be supposed that thou wouldst be very kind to him, though he were God's enemy: and we are easy enough to think well of him that pleases us, let him displease whom he list besides.

5. He may worthily communicate, that so pardons his enemy, as that he endeavour to make him to be his friend. Are you ready to do him good? Can you relieve your enemy, if he were in want? Yes, it may be, you can, and you wish it were to come to that. And some men will

their enemy with implacable prosecutions, till they have got them under their feet: and then they delight to lift them up, and to speak kindly to the man, and forgive him with all the nobleness and bravery in the world. But let us take heed, lest, instead of showing mercy, we make a triumph. Relieve his need, and be troubled that he needs it. Rescue him from the calamity which he hath brought upon himself, or is fallen into by misadventure; but never thrust him down, that thou mayest be honoured and glorious ?, by raising him from that calamity, in which thou art secretly delighted that he is entangled. Lycurgus of Sparta, in a tumult made against him by some citizens, lost an eye: which fact, the wiser part of the people infinitely detesting, gave the villain 8 that did it, into the prince's power ; and he used it worthily: he kept him in his house a year; he taught him virtue, and brought him forth to the people a worthy citizen. To pardon thy enemy, as David pardoned Absalom, that is true charity: and he that does so pardon, needs no further inquiry into the case of conscience. It was an excellent saying of Seneca ", " When thou dost forgive thy enemy, rather seem to acquit him than to pardon him ; rather excuse the fault, than only forbear the punishment: for no punishment is greater, than so to order thy pardon, that it shall glorify thy kindness, and upbraid and reproach his sin.”

pursue

e Quæ vindicta prior, quam cum formido superbos Flectit, et assuetam spoliis affligit egestas ?

Claudian. de Bello Getico, 93. Gesner, vol. ii. p. 409. # Nostrapte culpa facimus, ut malis expediat esse, Dum nimium dici nos bonos studemus et benignos.

Terent. Phorm. act. v. sc. 1. Mattaire, p. 283. ,

6. He that would be truly charitable in his forgiveness, and with just measures would communicate, must so pardon his enemy, that he restore him to the same state of love and friendship as before. This is urged by St. Bernardi, as the great imitation of the divine mercy. God hath so freely, so entirely pardoned our sins, that he neither condemns by revenging, nor confounds by upbraiding, nor loves less by imputing. He revenges not at all; he never upbraids; and when he hath once pardoned, he never imputes it to any evil purposes any more. And just so must our reconciliation be; we must love him as we loved him before; for if we love him less, we punish him, if our love was valuable ; then he is forgiven indeed, when he hath lost nothing. I should be thought severe if I should say, that the true forgiveness and reconciliation does imply a greater kindness after than before;' but such is the effect of repentance, and so is the nature of love. 66 There is more joy over one sinner that repenteth, than over ninety and nine just persons that need no repentance :” and a broken * love, is like a broken bone,-set it well, and it is the stronger for the fracture. When Nicanor railed upon Philip of Macedon, he slighted him, and he railed still: he then reproved him, but withal forgave him; and still he railed: but when he forgave him, and gave him a donative, he sealed Nicanor's pardon, he confuted his calumny, and taught him virtue.

& The villain :) Alcander..See Plutarch. Lacon. Apopth. Xylandr. tom. ü. p. 227. A. (J. R. P.)

h Cum autem ignoscis, ita beneficium tuum tempera, ut non ignoscere videaris, sed absolvere: quia gravissimum pænæ genus est contumeliosa venia.

i Tam liberaliter Dominus omnem donavit injuriam, ut jam nec damnet ulciscendo, nec confundat inproperando, nec minus diligat imputando.S. Bernard. in Cantic.

But this depends not upon the injured person alone, but upon the return and repentance of him that did it. For no man is the better with God for having sinned against him; and no man, for having injured his brother, can be the better beloved by him. But if the sinner double his care in his repentance, and if the offending man increase his kindness, justice, and endearments in his return to friendship,—then it is the duty of charity so to pardon, so to restore as the man deserves ; that is, the sin must not be remembered in anger, to lessen the worthiness of his amends. And this is that which our blessed Saviour says; “ If he shall return, and say, “ I repent,'—thou shalt forgive him.”

But the understanding of this great duty will require a little more exactness ; let us, therefore, inquire more particularly into the practical questions, or cases of conscience relating to this duty.

1. How far we are bound to forgive our enemy, that does repent; and how far him, that does not ?

2. How long, and how often, must we proceed in our pardon to the penitent?

k Nam in hominem ætate multa eveniunt hujusmodi :

Capiunt voluptates ; capiunt rursum miserias.
Iræ interveniunt; redeunt rursum in gratiam.
Verum iræ si quæ forte eveniunt hujusmodi,
Inter eos rursum si reventum in gratiam est,
Bis tanto amici sunt, inter se, quam prius.

Plaut. in Amphit. iii. 2. 57. Ernesti, vol. i. p. 41. | He then reproved him:] This circumstance is not mentioned by Plutarch, whom Bishop Taylor seems to quote from memory. Σμικύθου δε Νικάνορα διαβάλλοντος ως αεί κακώς λέγοντα τον Φίλιππον, και των εταίρων οίομένων δείν μεταπέμπεσθαι και κολάζειν, 'Αλλά μην (έφη) Νικάνωρ ου φαυλότατός έστι Μακεδόνω, εισκεπτέον ούν μή τι γένηται παρ' ημάς. Ως ούν έγνω τον Νικάνορα θλιβόμενον ισχυρώς υπό πενίας, ήμελημένον δε υπ' αυτού, προσέταξε δωρεάν τινα αυτή δοθήναι. πάλιν ουν του Σμικύθου λέγοντος, ότι θαυμαστά περί αυτού προς άπαντας εγκώμια λέγων ο Νικάνωρ διατελεί, “Οράτε ούν (ολσεν) ότι προς ημάς αυτούς έστι και το καλως και το κακώς ακούειν. --Apophth. Xyland. tom. ii. pag. 177. E. (J. R. P.)

3. What indications and signs of repentance are we to require and accept as sufficient ?

4. Whether, after every relapse, must the conditions of his pardon be harder than before ?

5. Whether the injured person be bound to offer peace, and seek for reconcilement ? or whether may he let it alone, if the offending party does not seek it?

6. Whether the precept of charity and forgiveness obliges us not to go to law ?

7. What charity or forgiveness the offended husband or wife is to give the other, in case of adultery repented of?

QUESTION I.

Whether we are to forgive him, that does not repent ;-and

how far, if he does ; and how far, if he does not? If he have done me no wrong, there is nothing to be forgiven; and if he offers to give me satisfaction, he is out of my debt. But if he hath been injurious, and does not repair me, then I have something to pardon. But what reason is there in that religion, that requires me to reward a sinner with a gift, to take my enemy into my bosom, to invite new injuries m by suffering and kindly rewarding the old ? For, by this means, we may have injury enough, and sin 'shall live at the charge of the good man's piety, and charity shall be the fuel of malice : what, therefore, is our duty in this case ?

I answer, that there is a double sort of pardon or forgiveness: the first and least is that, which neither exacts revenge ourselves, nor requires it of God, nor delights in it if it happens: and this is due to all; those very enemies that do not repent, that cease not still to persecute you with evil, must thus be pardoned, whether they care for it or no, whether they ask it or ask it not. For these we must also pray; we must bless them; we must speak as much good of them, as occasion and justice do require; and we must love them, that is, do them justice, and do them kindness : and this is expressly required of us by our blessed Saviour".

But there is also another forgiveness, that is, a restitu

m Veterem ferendo injuriam invitas novam.

11 Matth. v. 44.

tion to the first state of friendship; to love him as well, to think as well of him. And this is only due to them that repent, and ask pardon, and make amends as they can : for then the proper office of thy charity is to pity thy brother's infirmity, to accept his sorrow, to entertain his friendship and his amends, and to put a period to his repentance for having troubled thee. For his satisfaction and restitution hath taken away the material part of the injury, and thou art as well as thou wert before, or at least he would fain have thee so; and then there can be nothing else done, but what is done by thy charity; and by this thou must bear a share in his sorrow, believe his affirmation, accept his repentance, cancel his guilt, take off the remanent obligations, remove suspicion from him, entertain no jealousies of him, but, in all things, trust him where charity is not imprudent.

For it is not always safe to employ a person that hath deceived my trust, and done me wrong. But if you perceive, that he may wisely be trusted and employed, charity must take off the objection of his former failing. If, by repentance, he hath cut off the evil that he did thee, and that evil by which he did it-then, if you refuse to employ him, because he once did you wrong, it is revenge and not prudence. If he offended thee by pride, by anger, by covetousness; it is not enough that he say, “Sir, forgive me; I will make you amends :' it is enough to make you pardon him, and perfectly to be reconciled to him: but, unless his repentance hath destroyed his covetousness, his anger, or his pride,—the evil principle remains, and he will injure thee again. Which thing if wisely and without pretences thou canst really perceive,—to trust or to employ him in such instances, in which he formerly did injure thee, is not prudent nor safe ; and no charity ties thee to be a fool, and to suffer thyself to be tempted. Only be careful, that you do not mistake jealousy for prudence, and so lose the rewards of charity; lest, when we think ourselves wise, we become fools.

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