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religious systems of, v, 25, 26;
degrading Polytheism of, 28.
See Mohammed.

"Arabian Nights," i, 121.
Arago, Dominique François.-
(1786-1853.) French physicist
and astronomer, ix, 112, 347;
magnetic discoveries, xiv, 401;
his rotating disc, 419.
"Aratra Pentelici," Ruskin's,
xiv, 100.

Arbela, Battle of (331 B. C.), in
which the Macedonians (under
Alexander the Great) defeated
the Persians (under Darius),
i, 63.

Arbitration, xii, 376, 408-443.
Arblay, Madame d' (1752-1840),
Macaulay's Essay on, xiii, 266.
Arbuthnot, John.-(1667-1735.)

British physician and man-of-
letters, vii, 199.
Archæology, Modern, xiv, 351. See
Layard, Sir Austen H.
Archimedes of Sicily.-Reputed in-
ventor of the arch, iii, 107.
Archimedes of Syracuse. ——— (287-
212 B. C.) Astronomical re-

searches, iii, 165; mathematical
writings, 175.
Architecture, Church, early devel-

opment, v, 362; original church
modelled after the ancient Basil-
ica, 364, 365; transition to the
Romanesque, 366, 368, 371;
architects of latter, 367; the
ogive or arch appears, 372; Eng-
lish and continental cathedrals,
377; St. Paul's more Grecian
than Gothic, 381; Gothic
Churches, 384; Westminster
Abbey, 387. See William


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teachers of, i, 291; first expres.
sion in ancient art, 294.
Architecture, Sculpture, Painting,
iii, 83; imposing Egyptian, 85;
Babylonian, 88; Syrian, 88; in
India, 89; Grecian, 93-101.
Architecture, "Seven Lamps of,"
Ruskin's, xiv, 81; "The Poetry
of," Ruskin's, 82; his plea for
Gothic, 91.

Architecture of Egypt, ii, 74, 76.
Archons, Roman, iii, 32.

Arden, Forest of, xiii, 303.
Areopagus, Solon re-establishes the
Council or Court of, iii, 30.
God of war, i, 116,

Ares (Mars).

120, 121.
Argyll, Duke

of. (1824-1900.)
Opposed to Darwin's evolution-
ary theories, xiv, 193.
"Ariadne Florentina," Ruskin's,
xiv, 100.

Arians and the Arian controversy,
iv, 259, doctrines, 260, 261;
Empress Faustina patroness of
the sect, 261; Ambrose deems
doctrine dangerous error, 262;
Empress challenges him to pub-
lic disputation, and his refusal
to compromise himself, 261, 262.
Ariosto, Ludivico. (1474-1533.)
Italian poet, witchery of his
writings, xiii, 94.
Aristarchus.-Greek astronomer
(circa 280-264 B. C.), labors and
writings in astronomy, iii,
164, 166.



(temp. 380 B. C.)
Greek philosopher and founder
of Cyreniac school, i, 215, 257.
Aristophanes.-(444-380 B. C.)
Father of comedy. His Greek
plays, the "Clouds," etc., i, 250,
274, 330.

Aristotle. (384-322 B. C.) Greek
philosopher, and


Plato, i, 222; birth, and tutor

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see Prefatory Note at beginning of Index.

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somed, 65; "Roman de la Rose,"
translation of, 67; descriptions
of the people, 72, 73; "Legend
of Good Women," 73; "Canter-
bury Tales," 74-79; chivalry,
and description of women, 80,
81; sports and amusements, 82;
home, town, and city life of
period, 83-85; religious life and
ecclesiastical abuses of time, 85,
86; courts of love and chivalric
glories, 87; Ward's biography,
88; character, appearance, and
manners, 89, 90; monument in
Westminster Abbey, 90, 91; xi,
33; a huge literary borrower,
xiii, 294.

Cheatham, Major-General, B. F.-
xii, 349.

Cheddar, Hannah More's school at,
vii, 313, 314.
Chedorlaomer.-King of Elam, Ab-
raham rescues his nephew Lot
from, ii, 36; traditions and
legends of, xiv, 354.

Chemistry, its assistance in medi-
cine, xiv, 472.

Cheops, Pyramid of, iii, 87.

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xii, 329.
Chickamauga, General Bragg in
battle of, xii, 339.

China, Introduction of Buddhistie
doctrines into, i, 84, 85, 91;
Buddhist temples in (13th
cent.), 92; prescribed by pres
ent dynasty, 92; classic litera-
ture of, 174; intercourse with,
by land, xiv, 257; by sea, 261;
Emperor and Empress Dowager
of, 295.

Chinese Wall, xiv, 259.

Ching, Prince, of China, xiv, 298.
Chios (Scio), Turkish massacre of

Greeks at (1822), ix, 298.
Chivalry, its worship of the female
sex and the Queen of Heaven, v,
316; interesting institution of
Middle Ages, 320; as an insti
tution, vii, 228, 229.
Choiseul, Duc



French statesman, viii, 318.
Chopin, François F.



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see Prefatory Note at beginning of Index.

conquerors, 74; in valley of
Ganges, 76; xi, 27.
Asceticism of Early Church a pro-

test against materialism, iv, 179;

in monastic institutions, v, 137.
Ascham, Roger.—(1515-68.) Tutor

to Princess Elizabeth, viii, 67.
Asepticism, Lord Lister's work in,
xiv, 468.

Ashdod, a city of the Philistines,

siege of, ii, 330.

Ashdod and Gaza, keys of Egypt,
ii, 160.

Ashley, Lord.-On factory ques-
tion, x, 76.

Asia Minor, grand cities of, iii,

212; Christian sects in, v, 332.
Asiatic Monk, European pietist em-
braces the religious tenets of,
▼, 331.

Asiatic supremacy, iv, 27.
Aspasia. The beautiful and cul-
tured wife of Pericles, admirer
of Socrates, i, 209, 250, 255.
Asquith, Herbert Henry.-(1852. .)
English politician, attempts to
settle Irish question, XV, 32, 33.
Asquith, Mrs. Margot.-Diary, xv,

Asser, Welsh monk (died 909

A. D.), who wrote Life of
"Alfred the Great," viii, 53, 54.
Asshur.-National god of Assyria,
i, 43; corresponds with Greek
Zeus and Roman Jupiter, 44.
Assyrian and other ancient re-
ligions, i, 27; national deity of
Asshur, 43; influence of deities
on Jews, 44; Asshur its chief
deity, 43, 44, 48; oldest of great
empires occupying Mesopotamia,
43; other gods than Asshur, 45,
46; planet deities of, 47; their
goddesses, 48; oblations and
sacrifices to their gods, 49.
Assyrian monarchies, ii, 31; em.
pire of, 291; formidable under

warlike sovereigns, 292; break
up of empire, 337.

Assyrian and Aramean inscriptions,
recovery of, xiv, 384.

Astarte (Astoreth). - · Goddess of
fecundity, i, 48.

Astral deities, 1, 47.

Astrology of the East, iii, 157.
Astronomical discoveries. See Gal-

Astronomy, ancient study of, i, 47;
iii, 147; great lights of, 151;
Chaldean, 152, 153; Egyptian,
154; Greek, 155.
Astyages.-King of Media (584-
549 B. C.), orders his grandson
Cyrus to be destroyed at birth;
this is defeated by Harpagus, an
officer at court, who gives the
child to a herdsman, iv, 38, 39;
the deception discovered, Cyrus
accepted by Astyages as his heir,
40; Cyrus later heads revolt
against his grandfather, defeats
him in battle, and unites Medias
with Persia, 41.
Asvaghosha.-Early biographer of
Buddha, 1, 85.
Athaliah. - Daughter of Jezebel,
who reigned over Judah (483
B. C.), perishes with the remain.
ing priests of Baal, ii, 279;
ascendancy over her husband
Jehoram and malign influence,


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Bee Prefatory Note at beginning of Index.


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His "City of God," i, 35, 122,
123; oracle of Middle Ages, 264,
265, 376; great oracle of the
Latin Church, iv, 283; type of
Christian theologian, services
and personal character, 284;
birth and parentage, 284;
Monica, his sainted mother, 285;
education, influence of Mani-
cheans, 285-287; philosophical
attainments, 288; at Rome,
289; teaches rhetoric at Milan,
291; makes Ambrose's acquaint-
ance, and accepts theology of St.
Paul, 291, 293; baptized, 295;
bishop of Hippo (395), 296;
theologian and philosopher, 297;
controversy with the Donatists,
299, 300; combats the Pelagian
heresy, 303, 305, 306, 309; pre-
vails over Pelagius, 312; "The
City of God," and his "Confes-
sions," 313, 315; death and
character, 316-318; vii, 33, 141,
390; "Confessions of," 138;
xi, 208.

Augustus Cæsar (Octavius).-
(63 B. C.-A. D. 14.) Antony's
rival, iii, 323; fight between
their forces at Actium, 326;
Cleopatra seeks to ensnare him,
330; Roman emperor, vii, 161.
Aurelian.- -Roman emperor, trium-

phal car drawn by elephants,
iii, 232.

Aurelius. See Marcus Aurelius.
Austen, Jane. - English novelist,
Macaulay's admiration for, xiii,
Austerities, Brahminical, 1, 79, 82.
Austerlitz, Battle of (1805), i
144, 151.

Austin, Charles, xiii, 218, 250.
Austria, Disastrous effect of the

Seven Years' War on, viii, 390;
regains, by Congress of Vienna
(1815), many of her former do-
minions, the Tyrol, Venice,
Parma, and Lombardy, ix, 164;
Prussia's Seven Weeks' War
with (1866), ends in battle of
Königgratz (Sadowa), X, 286-


Austrian aristocracy, power and
wealth of, ix, 143.

Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, xv,

Avarse, a Hunnish tribe, conquest
of, by Charlemagne, v, 72.
Avesta. See Zend-avesta.
Avestan religion, difference be-
tween and the Vedic, i, 60.
Avidius Cassius, revolt in Asia

Azarias and Joseph, leader of the

Jewish people, ii, 392.
Azeglio, Marquis of, Italian patriot
and statesman (1798-1866),
seeks Italian liberation, x, 115,
117, 118; prime minister, 118,


For location of Volumes in Books,

Roman numerals refer to Volumes.
see Prefatory Note at beginning of Index.


Baal and Ashtaroth.-Worship of,
ii, 162.

Baal, priest of, slain by Elijah's
command, ii, 256, 275.

Baal, the sun-god, ii, 72.
Bab-el-Mandeb, Straits of, xiv, 380.
Babel, Tower of, iii, 84.
Babylon, fall of, predicted by
Isaiah, ii, 307; utterly de-
stroyed, 308; Babylon and the
mounds of ancient Chaldea, 371.
"Babylon and Nineveh," Layard's
account of, xiv, 370.

Babylonia, i, 43; El, the chief
deity, i, 45.

Babylonian and other ancient re-
ligions, 1, 27; polytheistic, 42;
influence of deities on Jews, 44;

study of astronomy, 47.
Bacchides, General, sent to chas-
tize the Jews, ii, 396.
Bacchus.-God of wine, orgies of,
i, 112; vii, 111.

Bacon, Lord, Macaulay's essay on,
xiii, 258.

Bacon, Francis, Lord Verulam.-

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philosophy, 402-404; inductive
method, 406, 418; points the
right road to truth, 410; his
"Sylva Sylvarum," 412; "The
Advancement of Learning," 413;
Essays, 414; vii, 386; xi, 212,

Bacon, Roger. - (1214-94.) Eng.
lish philosopher, vii, 277.
Bacon, Sir Nicholas.

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English statesman, and father of
Francis Bacon, viii, 80.
Bactrian tongue, that of Zoroaster,
native of Bactria (province of
ancient Persia) in which the
Avesta (sacred writings) W&S
composed, i, 61.

Baden-Baden, Goethe at, xiii, 398.
Baghdad, on the Tigris, xiv, 360-

Bagoses, satrap of Syria, ii, 376.
Baillie, Joanna.— - (1762-1851.)
Scottish poetess, xiii, 88, 94,

Balaklava, Battle of (Oct. 25,
1854), x, 188.

Balkan Wars, xv, 250, 251, 255.


Ballanche, Pierre Simon.
The New Philos-

ophy, vi, 383; Macaulay's harsh
portraiture, 384; birth, family,
and education, 387; enters Par-
liament, 388; acquaintance with
Essex who befriends b'm, 388,
389; becomes solicitor-general,
attorney-general, and Lord Chan-
cellor, 390; Lord Verulam and
Viscount St. Albans, 390; his
"Novum Organum," 390, 411;
accused of taking bribes, im-
prisoned, and fined, 391; the
charge of sycophancy,
alleged ingratitude to his patron
Essex, 394; toils amid enmities
and jealousies, 397; the epithet
"meanest of mankind," 398; his
legacy to the world, 399; his


1848.) French writer, and so
cial theorist: Friendship for
Mme. Récamier, vii, 241-243,

Ballantyne, James.- Edinburgh
publisher and friend of Sir W.
Scott, xiii, 87, 88.

Balzac, Honoré de.-(1799-1850.)
French novelist, vii, 231; xiii,

Bangweolo, Lake, Africa, xiv, 320.
Bank, United States, Jackson's

war with, xii, 60-62, 65, 66;
crash of, 69-71.

Bank of England, renewal of its
charter, X, 77.

Barbadoes, Washington's voyage to
(1751), xi, 109.

For location of Volumes in Books,

Roman numerals refer to Volumes.
Bee Prefatory Note at beginning of Index.

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