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about the same time as he did, or for the same term as his: which in both senses seems to be pretty much the case. For it was three of these newly risen powers that the pope or little horn of Daniel plucked up by the roots, and usurped their territories. These ten kingdoms which grew up out of the ruins of the roman empire, are differently enumerated ; but all agree that they were originally ten, " and are not like the beads successive, but contemporary kingdoms. Kingdoms they might be before, but not horns of the beast, till they embraced his religion, and submitted to his authority'

"*

These popish kingdoms in this respect have one mind, that they are in strict league and confederacy together against Christ and his church, and give their power and strength to the beast, or romish church and hierarchy, to uphold its power and greatness, and to join with it in the war against the saints, so as to be considered in the prophecies as one and the

* Newton vol. ii.

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same with the beast, or great Babylon itself. And they “ prevailed,* and practised, and prospered, and wore out the saints of the Most High.” Saint John says of the same power (which he also characterises at its first appearance)--

-“ And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations,”ť till the words of God should be fulfilled. Then a reverse is to take place, and the same powers which were the instruments of his elevation, are to be the agents employed in his destruction. They “ shall hate the whore," --shall indignantly resent the impositions she has practised upon them," and make her desolate and naked," --suppress her monastic societies, and disband those numerous legions of drones they contained ;_" and shall eat her flesh,convert their wealth and revenues to secular uses and plunder," and shall burn her with fire,"—torment her with the fierce heat of persecution, and tyranny, and bloodshed.

* Dan. vii. 21; viii, 29.

+ Rev. xiii. 7,

To conclude his description, he adds6 and the woman which thou sawest,– (and which has been distinguished by so many characteristic marks,) --" is that great city which (now) reigneth over the kings of the earth.That is to say, Rome, for it was as necessary for St John to be explicit in declaring this now, as for St Paul to be reserved at the time when he wrote. The Epistles getting into circulation immediately for the most part of them, but the Revelation of St John was long before it was generally received ; and the subject of it such as would not be likely to draw a close attention to it, from the powers in authority, had it come to their hands. They would have treated it with sovereign contempt, as many mystical reveries fabricated at that time by the heretics, did well deserve to be, and were so considered.

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SECTION XXVII.

The prophecies of the ancient prophets against Egypt,

Edom, and Babylon, applied to Rome by St John, - particularly in allusion to her intoxicating cup, and dementation thereby,

her cup of trembling, her pride and false security - her hypocrisy, and sorcery, and venality. --Some of these prophecies less applicable to Babylon than to Rome, and some applicable to Rome only, as her destruction by volcanic fire,-and the universal abhorrence in which her memory shall be held.

THẾ humiliation and fall of this ancient and mighty fabrick of imposture, which was concisely mentioned in the seventeenth chapter, is now set forth more at large in the eighteenth, by the same figures, and often in the very same words, which were long before employed by the prophets Isaiah and Jeremiah, to describe the fall of Babylon in Chaldea, one of the principal types of antichristian Rome; and whose

name is applied to her by St Peter, in a manner which shews the general understanding of this mystical name, which prevailed in the primitive church.*

It is very probable that the too great notoriety of the name in that application, induced St Paul to forbear the mention of it, and prefer giving only a dark hint upon a subject of so great delicacy.

As this vision, after the usual manner of this divine writer, refers to a preceding one, and enlarges upon the subject there rapidly passed over,t the angel which comes down from heaven, having great power, and illuminating the earth, or a great part at least of the roman empire, with the strength and clearness of his proofs, by which he made it manifest that Rome was the undoubted object of these prophecies ; is probably MARTIN LU

* 1 Pet. v. 13. "The church at Babylon salutetb you ;"an apostolical salutation, in the name of a church of principal consequence, to the church at large, must have been universally understood at that time, though a subject of dispute in our rer

mote age.

* Chap. xiv.

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