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"repentance." Some, either through the weakness or the inertness of their minds, take the name for the thing, the shadow for the substance. But to be satisfied with the shadow, is resting as it were on the air for support, or trying to live on wind; yet the time is coming, when all shall be convinced that the immortal spirit needs the arm of Jehovah to recline on, and the imperishable bread of heaven with the waters of life for its maintenance. Others think, that repentance consists, again, in nothing more than a slight reformation in their outward conduct; that is, if the moral wound in the soul is skinned over, they consider it healed, whether or not it has been cleansed and probed and mollified with ointment; or if the conscience is asleep, they, in that case, readily suppose that there is no guilt upon it; or if the wild beast is chained for a while, they are not anxiously concerned that it should be tamed also. Some, moreover, erroneously think, they can effect this mighty work themselves; but observe minutely those that say so, and you will soon discover that they are perfect strangers to the plague of their own hearts-to the indwelling corruption of sin, and to the force of evil habits. Finally, some conceive, as one said, that they can become virtuous when they please, and leap out of Delilah's lap into Abraham's bosom; but ah! they will find the real case to be far otherwise, for true repentance is a hard work-a heart work, and a soulchanging work,—and to produce the deep sensation in the adamantine heart of a sinner, which will amount to true repentance, requires superhuman and Divine influences, which may have a similar effect on that as Moses' rod had on the granite rock of Horeb, even to split it, and out of the fissure gushed forth water in abundance, which followed the Israelites during their sojournings in the wilderness, and until they reached the confines of the promised land. But to understand this doctrine yet more fully, we shall amplify a little on its peculiar nature, and examine its elemental components; and for this purpose we shall in the remaining part of this section, make four remarks, illustrative of true repentance.

1. It implies a change of mind. This enters into the very constitution of this doctrine; and we may say, that it is the very chief of its primary principles. Now, when the mind is enlightened by grace, the unavoidable consequence is that the individual has his thoughts changed with regard to moral, spiritual, and Divine things; a few of these we may enumerate. He has his views changed with refer, ence to God. Once he was at enmity with heaven, and he would not retain God in his knowledge; but it is otherwise now. He had once a revolting and a rebellious heart; but not so now, because he now longs for more submission to the Divine will, and for more conformity to the Divine image. Next, his views are changed with reference to the Saviour. Formerly, the Son of David appeared to him a s“ a root out of a dry ground;" He had “no form nor comeliness ;" but of Him now he says, “ My beloved is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand,” yea, "He is altogether lovely; this is my Beloved, and this is my Friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.” And in fact, he is astonished and grieved that he ever entertained any unworthy thoughts of the adorable Emmanuel. Again, bis views are changed also with regard to the value of his own soul, and the necessity of securing its salvation. Once he joined with the sensual and the earthly in that language, " What shall we eat? or what shall we drink? or wherewithal shall we be clothed ?” Then his body engaged all his care. But lo, now, the affairs of the immortal soul engross his complete attention. But, oh! it is lamentable, it is heart-rending to witness the cold apathy that is manifested towards the never-dying soul by myriads and myriads of our fallen race. Eternal Jehovah, vouchsafe" the down-pouring of thy quickening and enlightening Spirit on our world, to rouse dead șinners from their spiritual lethargy, and to take away the thick veil from their hearts, that they may live and prepare for eternal bliss ! Finally, the sincere penitent has his views changed with regard to sin. If he formerly turned it " sweet morsel 'under his tongue,” it is now become as acrid, as wormwood-yea, he finds it to be a fruit gathered from the vine that grew in Sodom, and in the fields of Gomorrah-as bitter as gall; he loathes it from his very soul. Yes, if formerly it could have been said of him in Job's language, “ How much more abominable and filthy is man, which drinketh iniquity like water”—(Job xv. 16)!-yet, now his mind is changed; he regards sin as the rankest poison that can be administered to the soul, producing there inental agony, and continually tending to eternal

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death. Then he feels the sensation that God commanded His people to entertain towards it-“But thou shalt utterly detest it, and thou shalt utterly abhor it, for it is a cursed thing;" whereas those were not formerly his views and his feelings.

We have now been speaking of repentance as a change of mind, and we mean just this : that the individual that experiences the real kind, is changed from esteeming moral wrong right, and moral right wrong—"from calling evil good, and good evil; putting darkness for light, and light for darkness, bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter.' And so he is brought to see things in their just position, nature, and tendencies. Opticians assert, that infants at first see all objects inversely, from the want of that principle called judgment, to place them in their right position. And when we enter into that science, we find that there is much truth and reason in the assertion ; for when objects are reflected through the glandules of the eye, on the retina or the optic nerve, the images produced there are all upside down; and the soul as quick as thought, by an act of the judgment, reverses them. So it is in grace ; the Spirit gives a right power and direction to the mind to apprehend aright-moral and spiritual things ; namely, to see sin just what it is, exceed ingly sinful,—and consequently the man hates it; and to see holiness as it is, extremely lovely, and so he admires it, loves it, and seeks it. And this change produces peculiar sensations in the soul; as God said by His servant Ezekiel, of those whom He had cleansed from their filthiness and their idols, and to whom He had given a new heart, and within whom He had put an upright spirit-" Then shall ye remember your own evil ways, and your doings that were not good, and shall loathe yourselves in your own sight, for your iniquities and for your abominations ; not for your sakes do I this, saith the Lord God, be it known unto you; be ashamed and confounded for your own ways, O house of Israel”—(Ezek. xxxvi. 31, 32).

2. Our second remark is this; that repentance implies a contrition of heart on account of sin. Now, this is not an unimportant part of our doctrine ; but we would designate it as an indispensable one. For when the change of mind we have alluded to, takes place, this inevitably must follow. The soul cannot be brought to see sin without being wounded and grieved on account of it. And oh ! when we take a retrospective view of our life, what negligences, what apathy, what unbelief, what ingratitude, what hypocrisy, and what rebellion we discover throughout it all! When we look within, what legions of vain and sinful thoughts are there, as thick as motes playing in the sun beams! and what shoals of hateful lusts and vicious passions are discoverable in this bosom, working as a troubled sea ! Hence, the true Christian exclaims with St. Paul, “ O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?” and hence, he perceives thai he has been adding folly to folly all his life long, and woe to woe to his own lurt; and we would ask, is it possible for us to detect all these things without being sorely pressed down with sorrow ? No, no. And this is just what it ought to be.

fact, we would say, Quench not the fire in this case, but rather fan it into a filame. What we mean is this ; when you begin to feel some serious concern for your souls, and some keen sorrow for past sins, be not eager to get rid too hastily of that wholesome uneasiness. And our reason for so saying, is the following: because a bruise cannot be healed aright, without first being well cleansed; nor car a wound be cured, before the thorn is removed ;'nor can a broken bone be properly attached, without first being set in its place. And in each and either of these operations, there is considerable pain to be endured; but health is sweet when it

We must confess, that we are somewhat enamoured with the phraseology chosen by the inspiredpsalmist and the evangelical prophet Isaiah, toset forth repentancea contrite heart” and a “contrite spirit.” Now the import of the adjective word

contrite,” is very emphatic. According to our lexicographers, it means bruisedmuch worn-worn with sorrow_harassed with the sense of guilt-penitent. And the substantive word “contrition,” still goes farther ; it implies the act of grinding or rubbing to powder. All these terms signify an accumulation of pungent sorrow, producing excruciating pain in the soul. A bruised heart, or as it is elsewhere rendered, “A wounded spirit, who can bear?" Now the question is What can sooth this pain? Why, the balm of Gilead. And who can heal these wounds ? Why, the Physician that is there. Nothing but the blood of Jesus can

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effectually cure a sin-sick soul ; and none but Him in whom are bid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, has skill sufficient to remedy the raging malady of sin in the heart. How delightful therefore it is for such to hear those words that once proceeded from Jesus' mouth—“The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath ordained Me to preach the Gospel to the poor : He hath sent Me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind ; to set at liberty them that are bruised 1"-(Luke iv. 18).

We would make one observation more here, to this effect; that there is a great mass of human beings, that have hearts which appear to be proof against almost every thing--hearts which are rendered callous by sin ; yea, as hard as an adainant. In fact, sin is the most hardening element that has ever been permitted to find a place in our world. But we cannot refrain mentioning that there is a counter-element through mercy sent down from heaven-an element that can melt and break even this granite--this flint within. And it has done so in millions of instances. And that powerful element is Divine grace. Now this made David so often to have bathed his couch with his tears; and to have transcribed with his bitterest tears, in the fifty-first Psalm, the deep sighs and the soul-rending sorrow of his heart. This made the poor publican, pressed beneath the load of his guilt, to go to the temple to pray, saying, be merciful to me a sinner!" This made the prostitute, Mary Magdalene, to weep tears enough to wash her Saviour's feet, wiping them with the hair of her head. And finally, this made the rebellious Ephraim to feel so concerned for his past evil conduct, as not to be able to suppress his sighs and the sorrowful ruminations of his heart, that when rambling through his solitary glens he frequently gave them vent and full expression ; and this entering the ever-nigh and merciful ear of Heaven, the Father of spirits publishes to the world afterwards by His servant Jeremiah the language of this penitent, and his meditations in his retirements, saying, “I have surely heard Ephraim bemoaning himself thus : Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to the yoke ; turn Thou me, and I shall be turned, for Thou art the Lord my God. Surely after that I was turned, I repented; and after I was instructed, I smote upon my thigh : I was ashamed, yea, confounded, because I did bear the reproach of my youth”—(Jer. xxxi. 18, 19).

3. The next gradation of feeling in the work of repentance, is a deep selfabhorrence, on account of our folly in sinning against God. And it cannot be otherwise ; for when a person is brought to see that he has grossly committed himself, and acted foolishly and irrationally, surely in his calm and reflecting moments, he cannot less than recoil (as it were) from himself, and consider himself one of the greatest enemies he has; saying with the devout and repentant Daniel, We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from Thy precepts, and from Thy judgments”(Daniel ix. 5). Also with another penitent, recorded in the Book of God, "I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes”—(Job xlii. 6). Now this is the selfloathing and the self-abhorrence, that form an essential part of true repentance.

But let us suppose, for a moment, that you lived in the neighbourhood of royalty, where a just and an amiable king resided, who was extremely condescending and compassionate, and was the father and benefactor of all around; and when this king was abroad one day visiting his beloved subjects, suppose you saw a man go up to him and begin to revile him in very abusive language, and to spit in his face out of sheer contempt, and then to strike him with malicious indignation ; what would you think of him ? Would you not consider him blameworthy in the utmost degree, and highly reprehensible? But further ; suppose you were told that the same recreant had received from the kind hands of this lovely personage whom he thus reviles and injures, ten thousand favours, what; then, would ou think of him ? Would you not set him down as a vile desperado, and a monster of ingratitude ? You are ready to answer,—Most assuredly, that would be our conclusion. But reader, be cautious ; suspend thy judgment; for Nathan is by thy side, even conscience saying, “Thou art the man.” God is the King of kings; the most merciful of all beings : our Creator and Preserver, who loads us day by day with His boundless munificence. But what has been our conduct towards Him? How have we acted in return for Ilis loving kindness? Have we no cause to abhor ourselves? Have we not reviled Him and insulted Him in numberless instances ? And have we not at least attempted to injure and dishonour Him? Shall we ask who can lay his hand upon his heart and say, I am pure froin my sin? We presume to answer, Sone ; for surely shame belongeth to all of us, and confusion of face. But we hasten to our last remark.

4. Repentance implies a reformation of life and a transformation of character. Now “ the tree is known by its fruit,” saith our Saviour ; and so this grace will make itself known by its effects on the life and character of its possessor; renewing the one and transforming the other. And this is not a doubtful fact; but it is as cer tain as that the new mown grass will appear refreshed, thriving abundantly, after the ructifying shower: or it is as sure, as that the trees and shrubs that are appointed to bear fruit will appear in due season laden with the same, after the reviving spring, that varies so often with sunshine and showers, but eventually succeeds in clothing the earth and the woodland in green robes of the most perfect hue. Moreover, it is not a fortuitous fact; but reformation of life and transformation of character arise from evangelical repentance, as unavoidably as the diffusion of light over our horizon is the inevitable result of the sun travelling in his strength through the circuit of the heavens ; or it will be as is the result of the pearly dew drops that abound in the womb of the morning trickling down to the roots of herbs, animating the kingdom of nature, and diffusing freshness and beauty all around. For read what the prophet Isaiah says of the penitents that shall people the kingdom of the Messiah— The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose; it shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing ; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon ; they shall see the glory of the Lord and the excellency of our God”—(Isaiah xxxv. 1, 2).

In drawing towards the conclusion, we would make here a necessary statement; that all the four particulars we have specified, are only different shades and colourings that make up one beautiful picture in the temple of Divine grace. Although we have mentioned them separately and distinctly, yet you will please to remember, that they commingle together in a most interesting manner in the soul of the penitent. There they forin an unique and a picturesque, but a variegated scene of moral renovation. Grace will be seen throughout all this workmanship of God; and while it is carrying on, until it be perfected, he that is worked upon will be shedding tears in profusion; and his briny tears in the hands of the Spirit

, steeped in the atoning blood of Jesus, will wash away all the black soot of hell from the mind, and will make the lovely image of heaven in all its attractions to re appear there. And this is making in the true sense of the word) new heaven and a new earth, where indwelleth righteousness.” It is delightful to bear in mind, that the tears of true repentance, when the soul is looking by faith to the glorious Sun of righteousness, will produce such a rainbow that will become an indubitable token to the believer's heart, of his sure title to the blessings of the covenant of grace, and to the precious promises of Jehovah made in His Word, which “ yea and amen in Christ Jesus.” Yea, these tears will make the barren land fruitful, and the parched wilderness a pool of water. And the real result will be in the heart—"that instead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree, and instead of the briar shall come up the myrtle tree : and it shall be to the Lord for a name, for an everlasting sign that shall not be cut off”—(Isaiah lv. 13).

Now we have shown, that there is a difference, and wherein that difference consists, between legal and evangelical repentance ; and we have also shown, that the latter repentance implies a change of mind concerning moral and spiritual things La contrition of heart on account of sin-an abhorrence of self for our folly in sioning against God-and finally, a reformation of life and a transformation of character. And oh! reader, when we shall mention, in winding up, the fruit of true repentance as manifested in the primitive Christians, let the question be solemnly asked, Has this been the case with me ? Have I felt those powerful sensations created in my mind by true repentance ? Listen to Paul in his epistle to the Corinthians; he says,

" Now I rejoice, not that ye were made sorry, but that ye sorrowed to repentance ; for ye were made sorry after a godly manner, that ye might receive damage by us in nothing. For behold this self-same thing that ye


sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you ; yea, what clearing of yourselves ; yea, wliat indignation ; yea, what fear; yea, what vehement desires ; yea, what zeal ; yea, what revenge!" These are the holy anxieties of true repentance. These are the irresistible elements that produce the spiritual and moral renovation of heart and life, and transformation of character, we have been speaking of. And “happy is that people that is in such a case ; yea, happy is that people whose God is the Lord”--(Psalm cxliv. 15).

Finally, we would say, that we are much delighted in reading one interesting passage in Paul's writings; and our chief aim in our antidotes, is to exemplify and realize the spirit of that excellent exhortation which that apostle gives when he says, “But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, kuowing that they do gender strifes ; and the servant of the Lord must not strive, but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach, patient, in meekness instructing those that oppose themselves, if God peradventure will give them repentance to the acknowleding of the truth, and that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him at his will.”--(2 Tim. ii. 23—26).—(To be continued.)

CRIMINAL STATISTICS OF FRANCE FOR THE YEAR 1839. Op 5,621 accused, 2,693 were found guilty, 1,598 acquitted, and 1,330 were convicted with modifications, which in 762 cases reduced the accusations to simple misdemeanours.

This Report gives an average of one crime to 4,268 inhabitants. The department of the Seine presents the greatest average of crime-viz., I to 1,203 inhabitants.

The Report, after stating the number of the accused, gives their sex, age, their position in society, and the degree of instruction they had received. Of the 7,858 accused, there were 6,409 men, and 1,449 women. This proportion, 18 out of 100, was exactly the same in 1838, and appears to be invariable. With respect to age, the accused are classed in the following manner :-78 were under 16 years of age; 1,227 from 16 to 21; 1,360 from 21 to 25; 1,453 from 25 to 30; 1,070 from 30 to 35; 880 from 35 to 40; 1,074 from 40 to 50; 484 from 50 to 60; 198 from 60 to 70; 41 frum 70 to 80; and 3 were above 80. Persons advanced in


commit proportionably less crime against property.

Amongst the 7,858 accused, 4,566 were unmarried, 2,918 were married, and 350 widows and widowers.

The degree of instruction possessed by the accused, appears to exercise an influence upon their actions which it is important to state; 4,396 accused could neither read nor write; 2,549 imperfectly; 705 tolerably; and 207 had received a superior education. .

According to the Report, the motives which influenced the commission of the crimes of murder and arson are nearly the same each year. Out of 772 of those capital crimes, 113 were induced by cupidity, 43 were caused by adultery, 94 by domestic dissensions, 19 by the passion of love, 41 by debauchery, 243 by hatred and desire of vengeance, and, in fine, 88 the result of gambling and drinking.

The Report erumerates 6,632 accidental deaths, 2,993 by drowning, 598 crushed by carriages, 579 by falling down precipices, and 230 have fallen victims to the iinmoderate use of spirituous liquors.

The Report states, that the number of suicides increases each year. 1839 they amounted to 2,747, being 161 more than in 1838, 304 more than in 1837, and 407 more than in 1836. The department of the Seine figures for 486, nearly one-fifth of the entira.

688 females are returned amongst the suicides. Each period of life, from infancy to old age, has paid its tribute to this malady. There are 2 children of from 8 to 9

years of age, 2 of 11, 1 of 12, 2 of 13, 3 of 14, 9 of 15, 147 of 16 to 21, 335 of 60, 189 of 70, and 41 of 80.

The means most frequently used to destroy life are submersion and strangulation. 958 individuals drowned themselves, 816 hung themselves, 189 suffocated them. selves with the fumes of charcoal, which appears to be the principal mode resorted to by the Parisians.

In the year

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