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native rock. That is not shown to visitors. Instead, one takes the ascending passage that leads up to the very centre of the pyramid, part of it spacious and lofty, but most of it abominably cramped and low. Up this incline it is supposed the body of Cheops was carried on the last day and laid to rest in the huge sarcophagus that still occupies a place in the “King's Chamber.” Then the huge plug blocks of granite which had been prepared were let down to bar future entry, the narrower passages were (perhaps) filled with rubble, the workmen escaped by the roughly vertical shaft to the lower passage in the rock below, the entrance in the outer casing was smoothly closed - and theoretically the grave-robbers were forever foiled! Practically the tomb was rifled within a few hundred years — possibly even during the period of unrest that closed the Old Kingdom's career in the Ninth and Tenth dynasties. The labor and cost had been all in vain. Cheops and the rest had erected for themselves tombs that would endure for centuries, probably for all time, — but their bodies were no more secure at the last than if they had been laid in the humblest grave.
Obviously mortuary services such as the Egyptian believed to be essential to the maintenance of his ka during the absence of the soul could not be conducted in the interior of the pyramid, and as a result a mor
tuary temple was in each case built outside. These were in turn surrounded by the lesser graves of courtiers and dependents. A few of the nobler sort built little pyramids, which have fallen into ruin and seem more like hillocks. The mortuary temples, however, have utterly perished, save only the so-called “Temple of the Sphinx," which men now believe to be a mortuary shrine of Khephrên. The connection of this structure with the Second Pyramid is clearly established by the remaining causeway, traces of which are visible in the sand, leading direct from the building to the pyramid. The Sphinx, also, is now held to be an image of Khephrên. It was no uncommon thing to carve the head of the king on a representation of a lion's body, and the great Sphinx differed from others mainly in that it was so enormous and was cut out of the native rock of the desert mountain. Its position close beside the granite valley temple of Khephrên and the discovery in that temple of the diorite images of that monarch appear to establish the identification beyond serious doubt. Moreover, recent investigations have revealed other mortuary temples in the same general relation to other pyramids, so that the uses of this better preserved and more remote one have come to be the better understood.
It seems to follow that Khephrên, rather than Cheops, is the man who left the greatest mark at Ghizeh.
His pyramid is smaller than that of his predecessor. It is not so old. It is seldom climbed - and almost never by tourists. It is not the one referred to in the catalogues of the world's tallest buildings. But it is more nearly complete than its greater fellow. It stands higher, and it looks quite as large. By reason of its association with the Sphinx and the attendant granite temple it assumes an archæological importance hardly to be overestimated. Add to this the fact that we have a splendid likeness, life-size, in the famous diorite statue of the king now housed in the Cairo museum, making him seem the most real of the monarchs of his time, and one is justified in saying that Khephrên is tardily but surely coming to
'N the days when Memphis was great, her dead
were buried in the verges of the western desert, which lay close at hand. Nor did the uses of this enormous cemetery cease when the capital shifted to other and more distant cities; for remnants relating to almost every period of Egyptian history have been found in those unstable sands, from before the First Dynasty down to the period of foreign domination. In a word, the desert bluffs overhanging the vast and vanished city of Memphis, all the way from the environs of that ancient capital to the distant northern pyramids, formed a mighty cemetery that was in constant use for at least two thousand years — and it
would not be safe to say how much longer. The interval between our own times and the date of the famous mausoleum of the bulls at Sakkâra, may well be shorter than the interval between the construction of the Serapeum and the erection of Zoser's Step Pyramid. This desolate burying-place was continuously used from the time of Menes to the time of Cambyses the Persian, not only for the interment of human bodies, but for the burial of all sorts of birds and animals that were deemed worthy of sepulture.
It is fortunate that Sakkâra, with its wealth of interesting tombs, lies so close to Cairo as to be within easy reach of such as have not time for the long voyage up the Nile. One who has seen Cairo, the Ghizeh pyramids, the Sakkâra tombs, and the fallen colossi of Rameses in the plain below has seen very nearly the best of ancient Egypt. He will have seen the earliest of the mastaba tombs, the oldest and greatest of the pyramids, the best as well as almost the earliest Egyptian art, the remnants of the later days of Rameses, and the still later Serapeum, which was built to receive the bodies of the sacred bulls. The grand works of the Eighteenth Dynasty at Karnak will be foregone — but he will miss little that is more ancient and little that is more impressive.
There be triple ways to take in going to Sakkâra. First and most obvious, as well as easiest, is the rail