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inches between their points and the lower teeth when the mouth was wide open; but it is not impossible that they were used like tusks for striking a terrible downward blow, to which their shape would well adapt them. A fine cranium of one species, M. Latidens, from the La Plata, is to be seen in Wall-case, No. 1 (south side), in the geological collection at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, with these teeth well preserved; and in the same gallery most of the fossil carnivora to be subsequently mentioned are represented.

There seems little reason to doubt that the man of the palæolithic period may have been familiar with this feline monster, and also with the great cave bear, Ursus spelæus ; the cave lion, Felis spelæa; and the cave hyæna, Hyæna spelea. The bear was as formidable as the existing “grizzly” of America, the lion of larger proportions than either the Asiatic or African species of our time, and the hyæna on a larger scale than existing species. In all the principal caverns the presence of the hyæna may be distinctly traced by the bones of herbivora gnawed in a manner characteristic of his living congeners, and by his own remains. The wolverine, or glutton

an Arctic species, extended into central France, and smaller species, such as the otter, weasel, &c., were represented in Meiocene times. Species of Canis, too, appear in the gypsuni of Montmartre, showing that this form was early differentiated; while a wolf, closely similar to Canis lupus of our time, has been found in the Cromer forest-bed, associated with extinct proboscideans.

Inasmuch as this forest-bed is certainly pre-glacial, the lupine form was already in being, at least as early as, and even anterior to, the period at which the human race had become so far differentiated from its ancestral form as to be entitled to claim the rank of Man. We cannot know whether the men of the drift period domesticated it; but this may be assumed with some confidence, that, surrounded as they were by ferocious carnivora, and living solely by the chase, beings intelligent enough to manufacture stone weapons would not

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have overlooked the advantage of securing the help of so valuable an animal. That the men of the palæolithic and neolithic periods were not without a canine companion can scarcely be doubted, though the direct evidence of this is scanty.

From the above it will be seen that the true carnivora are comparatively recent (i.e., so far as we know, not older than the Eocene), though they may have appeared in that period represented by the geological hiatus, between the Secondary and Tertiary formations. Since their appearance they have increased in families and genera, and now may probably be considered at their maximum of specialisation. The influence of man, however, is assuredly destined to extinguish all except a few forms useful to him, and one of the survivals under domestication is certain to be the genus canis.

FINIS.

R

INDEX.

A.

PAGE

238

78 et seq.

on ..!

78 et seq.

PAGE
Aard-wolf
36 Carlo II.

94
Ancients, dogs of the 89, 90

Retrieving

130-132
“ Animal Lore,” Miss Phip Carnivora, classification of 1
son's

183

Fossil
Arctic bears

65

Distribution in time 241
Foxes and guns

184 Carrion, love of, Dr. Romanes
Australasia, &c., exemption

and Mr. Dalziel on 114
of, from rabies

154

Sense of smell not affected
Australian natives and their

by ...

115-117
dogs
76 Cats

37
Bush, shepherding in 78 et seq. And mirrors

64
Danger from savages in

Battles of

40
Benevolence of

62
Sheep farms, value of dog

Colour of

45
Deafness of

45
Deceived by picture 219

Home at Battersea... 48
B.
Homing

51-58
Intelligence of

59
Barking, how acquired ... 141

Lawson Tait on

45
Battersea, Home for Dogs

177
Senses of

51
Bears

Sociability with dove 63
Dr. Rae on

68 Chang, Mr. du Maurier's 149
Intelligence of

69 Charcoal fire, danger of ... 180
Using missiles...

71 Cheetah
Benevolence in dogs
227 Civets

29
Boar killing tiger

12 Comte the ideas of
Bulldog

151
animals

212
Concerted action

189
Between Carlo I. and
C.

Don

190

Between colley and grey-
Carlo I. retrieving ...

125, 129
hound

189
Concerted action with Don 190 Between dingoes

189

65

26

on

PAGE

PAGE

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on ...

D.

sense

Dalziel, Hugh, on rabies 159

On dogs and carrion 114
Darwin, Charles, on conscience
in dogs...

232
On communication be-
tween dogs

192
On dew-claws ...

147
On the evolution of the
moral sense...

225
Deaths from hydrophobia,
official returns

175
Decroix, M., on rabies 161, 162, 170
Delmard, Mrs., on benevolence
in dogs...

227
Dew-claws

146
Darwin on

147
Dingo

142
Attacks of, on sheep 82
Hunting in concert 189
Mr. Taunton's...

96, 141
Pups

96
Ravages among sheep 143
Wagging the tail

136
Dogs on ancient monuments 89
Dog on Australian sheep farms 78
Barking, loss of the habit 142

Annoyance by... 138
Briton Rivière and Nettle.
ship on ...

221
Carrion, fondness for 114
Communication between,
Darwin on

192
Concerted action of 187
Cruelty to chained... 140
Descended from wild
varieties

74
Destruction of by prussic
acid

178
By Dr. Richardson's
method

· 180
Discrimination of odours

117-129
Of sounds... 105-109

Dog, dram drinking

111
Dread of the supernatural

210-215
Effect of grimaces on dogs 214
Eskimo dogs, Dr. Bessels

144-145
Crossing thin ice 145
Ferocity of

144
Manner of lying down 145
Seal hunting

134
Experiments on mental
faculties

212
On the

of
taste

109
Faculty of imitation 216
Failing to find their homes 199
Fidelity of

235
Fondness for attending
funerals

223
Geographical distribution 75
Habits acquired by asso-
ciation with man

192
Hearing, sense of

105
Home for...

177
Homing instinct 195, 196, 198
Humour, sense of

234
Hunting back scent 123-125
Imitation, faculty of 216
Man, love of

75
Memory

203
Mind and character 181 et seq.
Moral sense

225
Mummies of

89, 91
Mutilation (self) during
rabies

160
Performing

217
Placing sentinels

187
Pointing

192
Poisoning

138
Rabid, treatment of bite 189
Rabies in
Recognition of pictures
by...

-219-222
Reflection in

194-203
Repugnance to certain
odours

113
Responsibility of owners 176
Revenge of a

230
Savages, warning of, given
by...

78
Sheep, attack by

87

153 et seq.

...

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