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shall in spirit and in truth worship the Father in every placemo shall his will be done on earth as it is done in heaven. If any can prove that there is a necessity that the Mosaic economy must be revived, that the Messiah's kingdom may be facilitated on the earth, then we might, yea, ought to believe, that the Jews shall again rebuild their ancient cities, and dwell in the mountains of Israel. But as we know that system, once glorious in its place, shall never be revived, so neither is there any reason why the Jews mtust again be restored to their country rather than to any other on the globe. There is, however, a degree of probability, that if the Ottoman power shall be broken, and such government as may stand in their place should not oppose them, the Jews who dwell in the Turkish countries, may go to Jerusalem, because it is the land of their faihers. But if such shall be their disposition, and it is even accomplished, how is this to further their conversion to Christianity ? It would, in my opinion, rather retard than hasten it ; because a revival of the Mosaic laws, with all its ceremonies, is the highest aim of the Jews in all the world. But if they recieve the gospel, and accept of the Messiah of Nazareth in those countries where they now are dwelling, their restoration will in this way be accomplished, and the prophecies fulfillea, which respect their return in a spiritual sense, when both Jew and Gentile shall by the gospel be changed to what the Saviour and St. Paul designated as the constituent qualifications of a real Israelite, or Jew. 4th. Some Millennarians have supposed, because Christ said on

ertain occasion his twelve disciples, that they should sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel, that the Apostles shall thus sit judging the twelve tribes of Israel during the Millennium. See Matth. 19, 28. " And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."

Their arguments are, that the Apostles never on the earth enjoyed that promise, and must, therefore, sit on those thrones in the Millennium. But this surely is easily otherwise interpreted ; for observe, this was to take place when the Son of Man should sit in the throne of his glory. When, therefore, did he com


mence this sitting in the throne of his glory? I answer, immediately after his ascension from earth to heaven. A few days only, therefore, had elapsed, when, after that event, the twelve Apostles ascended their promised thrones. But how? I answer, in the following manner: After the resurrection of our Lord, (see Luke 24, 49) he said to the twelve, “ But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.” This very power with which they were to be endowed, was accomplished on them, when, on the day of Pentecost, after his ascension, the Holy Ghost descended and sat on them in the form of cloven tongues of fire. This was their exaltation to the promised thrones, when they recieved power to preach the gospel understandingly, which, till then, they had not fully comprehended This was their exaltation to the thrones of the Apostolic power, to preach the gospel to every creature, to heal the sick, to raise the dead, in confirmation of it, and to establish a new system instead of the old. This was their exaltation to the twelve promised thrones, to have power to pull down the old system of Mosaic sacrifices, and now useless observances ; to confound the Jews in argument, as did St. Stephen, and to denounce judgment against them—thus judging the twelve tribes of Israel, because they rejeeted the true Messiah.

5th. Some have thought that the judgment day is to take place at the end of the next century, or when the earth shall be 6000 years old from the creation, and that afterwards the Millennium is to succeed. But certainly neither of these positions can be true; because we have no warrant, either in reason or from the Scriptures, to believe, that Satan is to be loosed from his prison, and to trouble the saints after the judgment day. But that the Millennium shall transpire before the general judgment, there is abundant proof. See Rev. 20.

6th. Others have supposed that all the righteous Jews, patriarchs and prophets, are to possess the land of Canaan after their resurrection from the dead. They alledge, as a reason, that the ex tent of the promised land was never possessed by them, and, therefore, must yet be literally fulfilled in the Millennium. But it appears to me, that land is of little worth to such as have tasted of the higher bliss of a heavenly state ; and further, the sentiment would seem to compel the spirits of just men made perfect to an alarming retrograde of being, from a heavenly state back to an earthly one.

7th. Some Millennarians have imagined that Elijah the prophet is yet to come, as a forérunner of the Messiah's second advent. They disallow that John the Baptist was Elijah, because, say they, he did not do the work foretold of him by Malachi, " which was to turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers.” Mal. iv. 6. This work is supposed by them will be accomplished by the real Elijah, when he comes as a forerunner of the second advent of Christ. But that opinion has its refutation in the assertion of Christ, who well knew whether John the Baptist was Elias or not. “But I say unto you, that Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed.” Matth. xvii. 13.:

8th. It has been supposed by some, that when the judgment day 'shall arrive, that it will continue a thousand years, and at the same time the Millennium is to commence, and also to continue the same length of time. But how can these two amazing eras in the destinies of the living and the dead, the holy and the unholy, be blended together? It appears to me that such an arrangement would destroy the perfection of both a judgment day and a Millennium—for the latter would necessarily be mingled with the terrors and horrors of the former; and, consequently, would have a mitigating effect, while the former would distress and disturb the mild influences of the latter ; so that each would act on the other in a paralyzing manner, and render them totally nugatory as to effecting the purposes for which both are appointed, and in their proper and distinct places will surely take place.

9th. An opinion has been entertained, that the symbolical river which Ezekiel saw in a vision issuing out from under the eastern gate of the temple, shall be fulfilled by the breaking forth of a literal river of very salubrious water in the country of Palestine, after the temple is rebuilt ; and is to have its commencement at that temple, and is to flow down through the desert country into the sea. This river, says that opinion, is to furnish the inhabitants with fishes of the most excellent kinds, by its healing the ocean wherever it shall mix with that of the seas. But I believe the text, which is Ezekiel, chap. 47, verse 9, furnishes no ground for the supposition, that the fishes there alluded to are are such as

a literal ocean produces ; but as the ocean, or vast bodies of water, are taken to represent multitudes, nations and people, enmasse, so the mention of fishes in that verse signify individual persons, and the river itself represents the light of revelation from heaven during the four great dispensations, from Abraham till the end of the next century, which is four thousand years. See the Chart, and also the Second Division of this book, for a more enlarged view of that significant river.

10. Some Millennarians have thought that the saints and martyrs, at the time of the first resurrection, will arise from the dead and remain on the earth, for no higher purpose than to possess and exercise a secular dominion over the nations, I know of no Scripture which favours such an opinion, except the following: Rev. 5, 10. “And hast made us unto our God kings and priests ; and we shall reign on the earth.” But this I understand as spoken by way of anticipation, and contains a prophecy, that finally the Christian cause should triumph on the earth. And further, it may signify that which every Christian knows to be a fact, namely, that when Christ has set up his kingdom in the heart of a believer, that he is at once free from the reigning power of sin, and whereas he once was a slave to this monster, he now has the victory, through the power of Him in whom he has believed ; therefore, of such an one it may be said, he reigns on the earth. But, I conclude, the verse alludes to the Millennial state, as anticipating its glories, but not as retaining the righteous dead after their re surrection, to share in a state of things, though glorious for the time being, but infinitely short of the undescribed glory the saints shall possess after their resurrection, which will certainly unfit them for any degree of bliss this side of heaven itself; but the saints, who, at the time of the first resurrection, are alive, are they who shall have this victory, and shall reign on the earth.

There is another verse, which, at first sight, perhaps, might suggest the foregoing idea, namely, a reign of the righteous dead on the earth. See Rev. 20, latter clause of verse 4. “ Neither had received his mark upon their forehead, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years." But in this we observe there is no promise that the righteous dead, of whom it is spoken, Xe to reign on the earth at all ; but simply are to reign with Christ a thousand years and signifies, that while the li

ving saints on the earth are reigning in the Millennial state a thou sand years, so they in heaven shall reign with Christ till the thousand years are finished, at which time the church below and above shall be for ever united in glory.

Having given a variety of opinions concerning the Christian Millennium, of both ancient and modern times, I proceed to present the humble views of the author of this book. He does not attempt any explication of the prophecies farther than such portions of the sacred word as strictly relate to the Millennium, and the period of its commencement, the manner of its introduction, the consequences which will follow both its approach and consummation, as well as the glories and happiness of the saints during the interim of a thousand years.

As I have said nothing particularly in this work respecting the great battle of Armageddon, as hinted at in Rev. 16, 16, “ And he gathered them together into a place, called, in the Hebrew tongue, Armageddon"--I will just observe, that it will probably consist of an universal civil war, occasioned by the diffusion of republican politics. The charms of popular government have smiled from the face of America as from the face of an angel, and filled many countries with an unextinguishable desire to shake off all monarchical authority. Two vast parties already exist, and their interests consist in the one upholding the fancied rights of kings, while the other more righteously aims at revolution-which will not be brought about but by the pouring out of blood. The word “ Armageddon” or chormahgedehon,” signifies a great destruction of armies gathered together for battle ; and when it shall be fought, it is not unreasonable to suppose truth will be the victor, when the subject shall be for ever at rest.

There are some however, who believe that this great battle will be realized not many years hence, occasioned by a collision of religious sectarian interests. But the present charitable conduct of the different churches toward each other, argues a vastly different consequence. Others suppose that infidelity under various forms of profession, will league together for the destruction of all real Christianity ;-this is even possible, and while civil war on the subject of government may be prosecuting, infidelity may then endeavour a destruction of religion. See Appendix, page 406.

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