Page images
[ocr errors]


was 804

General association of the possessors of fiefs among themselves; third cha.

racteristic of the feudal system-From the very nature of its elements

this association must have been wear and irregular; it, in fact, always

-Fallacy of the view which the apologists of this system trace

of the feudal hierarchy—Its incoherency and weakness were especially

great at the close of the 10th century—The formation of this hierarchy

from the 5th to the 10th century-Three systems of institutions are

seen together after the German invasion: free institutions, monarchical

institutions, aristocratical institutions—Comparative history of these

three systems—Decline of the two first–Triumph of the third, which

yet remains incomplete and disordered


p. 56


Method to be followed in the study of the feudal period—The simple fief is

the fundamental element, the integrant molecule of feudalism-The

simpie fief contains : 1, the castle and its proprietors; 2, the village and

its inhabitants-Origin of feudal castles—Their multiplication in the

9th and 10th centuries—Causes of this—Efforts of the kings and

powerful suzerains to oppose it-Futility of these efforts—Character of

the castles of the 11th century—Interior life of the proprietors of fiefs-

Their isolation--Their idleness—Their incessant wars, expeditions, ana

adventures--Influence of the material circumstances of feudal habita-

tions upon the course of civilization-Development of domestic life,

condition of women, and of the spirit of family in the interior of castles

p. 75


[ocr errors]

p. 96


The state of the agricultural population, or the feudal village-Its condition

seemed for a long time stationary_Was it much changed by the invasion

of the barbanans and the establishment of the feudal system ?—Error ot

the common opinion upon this subject--Necessity for studying the state

of the agricultural population in Gaul before the invasion, under the

Roman administration-Source of the study-Distinction between coloni

and slaves—Differences and resemblances of their condition-Relations of

the bond-labourers, 1, with the proprietors ; 2, with the government-

How a man became a bond-labourer-Historical origin of the class of

bond-labourers--Uncertainty of the ideas of M. de Savigny-Conjectures

p. 121



Of the state of the agricultural population in Gaul from the 5tn to the 14th

century-It has not changed so much as is commonly supposed-Of the

two principal changes which it was to be expected would take place in

it, and which did, in point of fact, take place—Insurrections of the

peasants in the LOth and 11th centuries—Continuance of the distinction

between the coloni and the serfs-Progress of the condition of the coloni

from the Llth to the 14th century-Proofs

p. 135

[ocr errors]


General character of the feudal society-Its good principles: 1. Necessity

of individual consent for the formation of the society; 2. Simplicity

and notoriety of the conditions of the association ; 3. No new charge

or conditions without the consent of the individual ; 4. Intervention of

society in judgments; 5. Right of resistance formally recognis d;

6. Right of breaking through the association; its limits—Vices of the

feudal society-Twofold element of every society-Weakness of the

social principle in feudalism-Excessive predominance of individuality

-From what causes-Consequences of these vices-Progress of the in.

equality of force among the possessors of fiefs—Progress of the in-

equality of rights--Decline of the intervention of society in judgments

-Origin of provosts and bailiffs-Formation of a certain number of

petty royalties-Conclusion

p. 183
Condition and various characteristics of royalty at the accession of Philip


Augustus—State of the kingdom in point of territory- Possessions of

the kings of England in France Relations of Philip Augustus with

Henry II., Richard Cour de Lion, and John Lackland— Territorial ac.

quisitions of Philip Augustus—Provostries of the king-Progress of the

monarchical power-Efforts of Philip Augustus to rally round him the

great vassals, and to constitute of them a means of government-He

applies himself, at the same time, to separate royalty from feudalism

The crown emancipates itself from the empire of the clergy-Legislative

labours of Philip Augustus-His efforts to advance material and moral

legislation-Effect of his reign on the mind of the people-Royalty be-

comes national -Manifestation of this result after the battle of Bovines,

and at the coronation of Louis VIII. .

p. 223


Royalty under the reign of Saint Louis-Influence of his personal character

-His conduct with regard to the territorial extent of the kingdom-His

acquisitions—His conduct towards the feudal society-His respect for

the rights of the seigneurs-True character of his labours against feu.

dalism-Extension of the judicial power of the king-Progress of legis.

lation and of parliament—Extension of the legislative power of the

king-Progress of the independence of royalty in ecclesiastical affairs

-Administration of Louis within his domains--Summary . . p. 248

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


Why it is important never to lose sight of the diversity of the origins of the

third estate-1. Towns in which the Roman municipal system was per.

petuated—Why the documents relating thereto are rare and incomplete

-Perigueux-Bourges-2. Towns which, without having been, pro-

perly speaking, erected into boroughs, received various privileges from

their lords-Orleans--Customs of Lorris in Gatinais-3. Boronghs,

properly so called- Charter of Laon,True meaning of this charter and

of the communal revolution of the eleventh century-Birth of modern



• P. 303

« PreviousContinue »