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land, that charming poet of fairy land, enchants all hearts by incantations, Oberon and the Queen ; so, by sobriety of reason, conducted and elevated by holy, religious fancy, and in reciprocation by the transports of imagination, controlled by steadiness of judgment, and by joint operation of each intellectual power, exerted on the beauty or dignity of Divinity, Praxiteles sculptured the Venus of Cnidus; and Apelles painted the elder of the Graces ; so Polycletus produced a sublime object of adoration in the majestic Juno of Argos. Phidias unfolded to the eyes of mortality the hallowed form of the Olympian Jupiter, the reverend father of the Gods, in towering loftiness and transcendental dignity. Such indeed was the force and effect of this mighty work, that Epictetus in Arrian, as quoted by Carlo Fea, calls the enthusiasm of the Greeks for this image, madness, when he says, “ Que “ dementia est, ad Olympia proficisci vos, ut Phidiæ opus spectetis, “ ac siquis ante obitum non viderit pro infortunato se ipsum rep“ utare ;” and Quintillian in his Institutiones confers the noblest and most awful eulogy on this statue, “ cujus pulchritu“ do adjecisse aliquid etiam recepta religioni videtur, adeo majestas operis Deum æquabat."
It is time to close this long letter, but the subject is far from being exhausted. I have said nothing on the religious purposes of the pictures and images ; on the protection, afforded by the deities to those cities, which honored them with the most august representations. I have not touched on the low state of the fine arts among the Persians, which originated unquestionably from the nature of their mythology, so different from the Greek system. No mention has been made of the effect of Christianity on painting, so nobly evidenced in the Madonna and in the Saviour by Raphael, Corregio, Guido, and Leonardo da Vinci. Had I extended my disquisition to these topics, I might have strengthened my arguments, but perhaps I should not have augmented your knowledge, or your pleasure. But it is now dinner time. Aand W
are waiting for me at Beauvillier's Hotel ; and, while we are feasting on carp, and drinking mellow Burgundy, our pleasant sensations will be increased by the hope, that you, D- are rioting at Slaughter's on widgeon and cool port.
ORIGINAL MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN, COUNT
OF RUMFORD ;
(Continued from page 44.] To conceive great and splendid projects, and calculate the beneficial consequences, which are to be their results, is surely a testimony of a noble mind; but to conceive feasible ones, and against all opposition to execute them, and make all the parts of a complicated “establishment go on to“ gether, and harmonize, like the parts of a piece of music in “ full score," and completely effect the object of the institution, is certainly the most convincing evidence of genius. This seems to be the nature of Rumford's system, and the best commentary is found in the military work house at Munich.
The same year, 1790, under Sir Benjamin's direction, the military academy was instituted. The design of this establishment is to call into active and useful life the dormant spark of genius, which would otherwise remain immured in obscurity and oblivion. Although it is called the military academy, military accomplishments are not alone taught. Every exercise, which can add to the education of the gentleman as well, as the soldier, is performed, so that it is a school of general education, where every science is studied, which fits them for gentlemen, for the study of any learned profession, or any civil or military employment.
As its object is expressly to call into activity“ very extra“ordinary natural genius only,” no distinction of classes, from which the elèves are selected, is known; but the children of the meanest mechanics and day laborers find as ready admission, as the children of the nobility. In this academy, which consists of 180 pupils, Sir Benjamin's reform in matters of economy is carried to a great length. By the experience of four years he found, that the expense of each pupil amounted only to fourteen pounds sterling a year, and, considering that professors and masters of every kind are employed, and servants, cloathing, board, lodging, firewood, light, repairs, and every other article, except house rent, are supported by this expense, the economy is indeed wonderful.
In 1790 also the celebrated English garden was begun in the environs of Munich. The land, made use of for this purpose,
had formerly been a forest, or hunting ground, belonging to the Electors, but then in a state of wildness, and rather a desert, than the suburbs of a city. Sir Benjamin obtained the Elector's permission to convert this useless tract into a beautiful public garden, with a view to promote the agricul tural interest of the country. He began by laying out extensive walks, promenades, streets, and races, and round the whole, an extent of several miles, he made a road, on which, at regular intervals, cottages and farm houses were erected. In these the tenants, or servants, who occupied, or superintended any part of the lands, resided.
of the lands, resided. In one place a lake was made, and with the earth, which was taken out, a hill, or mound created, which gave to the whole a pleasant and picturesque aspect. In another a public coffee house was built, where the inhabitants of the city might retire, and partake of the various amusements of the garden. On an eminence a Chinese pagoda appears, which, through the dense foliage of the trees, has a charming effect. Every thing, that could add to the beauty of the place, was employed, nor was the utility of the plan neglected.
But what gives to the whole a variety and elegance, and at the same time excites the liveliest sensations in the heart of a spectator, is the marble monument, placed in one of the pubbic squares of the garden. The Bavarians were too sensible
of the services, rendered by Sir Benjamin to the state, not to show some public testimony of their gratitude, ument to the memory of Rumford was erected in 1795, four years after the garden was made ; but as it has so important an effect upon the scenery, and must always be noticed in a mention of this work, that inserting at this time the following account, which was furnished the writer by one, who has often enjoyed the delightful prospects, cannot be improper.
“ Description of the monument, erected to Count Rum“ ford, by the principal nobility, and other inhabitants of the city of Munich.
“ This monument, which is constructed of Bavarian free« stone and marble, stands in a public garden at Munich, " made by Count Rumford, commonly called the English gar. “ den. It was erected during Count Rumford's absence “ from Bavaria, and without his knowledge, in the autumn " of the year 1795, while he was in England.
“The monument is of a quadrangular form, and has two principal fronts opposite to each other, which are both orna« mented with basso relievos and inscriptions.
• The front towards the principal road, that leads from “ the town through the garden, is decorated with a basso re“ lievo of two figures, representing the genius of plenty leading Bavaria, and strewing her path with flowers.
“ Under the basso relievo, upon a large block of polished « marble, is an inscription in the German language, of which * the following is a literal translation.
“ Rumford, the friend of mankind,
Changed this once desert place
* Into what thou now beholdest." “On the opposite side of the monument there is a bust of “ Count Rumford, thought to be very like him, in Bavarian “ Alabaster, and under this bust on a block of polished mar« ble an inscription, of which the following is a translation."
« To him,
“ Idleness and mendicity ;
“ And founded many institutions
“ And us
“ In gratitude." This instance of public esteem, as it has not a parallel in history, would be a rich reward to a man, who sought for splendid honors only; but, to the real philanthropist and a great man, is far inferior to one visit to the house of industry,
Sir Benjamin established military gardens in all the garrisons throughout the Elector's circle. In these the officers and soldiers in garrison amused themselves in horticulture, and whatever emoluments they could receive from cultivating a small tract of land were their own, as a reward for their industry
The services, which the sovereign had received from the unwearied application of Sir Benjamin, were partially compensated by the honors, occasionally bestowed upon him. At this time the Elector gave him a regiment of artillery, and conferred on him the rank of Lieutenant General of his armies.
In the year 1791 he was created a Count of the holy Roman Empire, and honored with the order of the white eagle. After he received the title of Count, he chose to bear the name of Rumford, which Concord in New Hampshire, the place, where he married, and where his estate was situated, formerly bore.
Count Rumford made proposals to the Elector for improv