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ideal. The soft climate of Greece had indeed fashioned to terrestrial excellence the form and features of Lais, Phryne, and other courtezanis, but they gave no adequate representation of female divinity. Henéë, as we learn from the Memorabilia of Xenophon, the Greeks were acèustomed to unite the perfect parts of different beings, in order to constitute an imaginary whole. So when Leuxis was to paint a Helên to be a finished représentation of the divine Juro for the temple of this goddess at Crotona, we are told in the beautiful narrative of Tully, that he chose for imodels five most lovely sisters of the youths, who had contended in the Palæstra. The imagination of the workman presided over the execution. His hand was employed in uniting scattered parts of perfection, while his mind was fixed intently on the celestial personage, and acquiring from rapturous meditation a grace and a grandeur, which were to cover and finish the whole. These contemplations were durable and profound. They sometimes approached to reverie, if we may believe the artists themselves, as when Parrhasiüs boasted, that he had painted Hercules, as that hero had appeared to him, when he came in his divine nature ; and I have read, that in the Anthologia Parmenio says, that Polycletus had formed the queen of heaven from the various figures, in which that goddess had presented herself to his senses. From such absorption of mind the most beautiful and dignified conceptions must have originated. The subjéct was sublime, the artist was to be honored, the picture was to be reverenced, and the statue was to be adored. These glorious effects could be produced only by the ardent processes of intellect. Poetry is analagous to her sister arts, and, as by glow of thought exerted on suitable subjects, Homer sung of the gods; as Ariosto exhibited his griffins; as Camoens called up the ancient spirit of the stormy cápe ; as Shakespearė gave to the elves" a local habi"s tation and a name"; as Milton enraptures by his seraphs, or terrifies by his infernals ; as Ossian points to the dim ghosts of the hill; as the Purana poets of Hindostan strangely unfold the mysterious incarnations of Brahma, and as Wie
land, that charming poet of fairy land, enchants all hearts by incantations, Oberon and the Queen ; so, by sobriety of reason, conducted and elevated by holy, religious fancy, and in reciprocation by the transports of imagination, controlled by steadiness of judgment, and by joint operation of each intellectual power, exerted on the beauty or dignity of Divinity, Praxiteles sculptured the Venus of Cnidus ; and Apelles painted the elder of the Graces ; so Polycletus produced a sublime object of adoration in the majestic Juno of Argos. Phidias unfolded to the eyes of mortality the hallowed form of the Olympian Jupiter, the reverend father of the Gods, in towering loftiness and transcendental dignity. Such indeed was the force and effect of this mighty work, that Epictetus in Arrian, as quoted by Carlo Fea, calls the enthusiasm of the Greeks for this image, madness, when he says, “ Quæ “ dementia est, ad Olympia proficisci vos, ut Phidiæ opus spectetis, “ ac siquis ante obitum non viderit pro infortunato se ipsum rep“ utare ;” and Quintillian in his Institutiones confers the noþlest and most awful eulogy on this statue, “ cujus pulchritu“ do adjecisse aliquid etiam receptæ religioni videtur, adeo majes“ tas operis Deum æquabat.”
It is time to close this long letter, but the subject is far from being exhausted. I have said nothing on the religious purposes of the pictures and images ; on the protection, afforded by the deities to those cities, which honored them with the most august representations. I have not touched on the low state of the fine arts among the Persians, which originated unquestionably from the nature of their mythology, so different from the Greek system. No mention has been made of the effect of Christianity on painting, so nobly evidenced in the Madonna and in the Saviour by Raphael, Corregio, Guido, and Leonardo da Vinci. Had I extended my disquisition to these topics, I might have strengthened my arguments, but perhaps I should not have augmented your knowledge, or your pleasure. But it is now dinner time, A and W
a re waiting for me at Beauvillier's Hotel ; and, while we are feasting on carp, and drinking mellow Burgundy, our pleasant sensations will be increased by the hope, that you, D , are rioting at Slaughter's on widgeon and cool port.
ORIGINAL MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN, COUNT
10 conceive great and splendid projects, and calcu. late the beneficial consequences, which are to be their results, is surely a testimony of a noble mind; but to conceive feasible ones, and against all opposition to execute them, and make all the parts of a complicated “ establishment go on to“gether, and harmonize, like the parts of a piece of music in “ full score,” and completely effect the object of the institution, is certainly the most convincing evidence of genius. This seems to be the nature of Rumford's system, and the best commentary is found in the military work house at Munich.
The same year, 1790, under Sir Benjamin's direction, the military academy was instituted. The design of this establishment is to call into active and useful life the dormant spark of genius, which would otherwise remain immured in obscurity and oblivion. Although it is called the military academy, military accomplishments are not alone taught. Every exercise, which can add to the education of the gentleman as well, as the soldier, is performed, so that it is a school of general education, where every science is studied, which fits them for gentlemen, for the study of any learned profession, or any civil or military employment.
As its object is expressly to call into activity “ very extrae ordinary natural genius only,” no distinction of classes, from
which the elèves are selected, is known ; but the children of the meanest mechanics and day laborers find as ready admission, as the children of the nobility. In this academy, which consists of 180 pupils, Sir Benjamin's reform in matters of economy is carried to a great length. By the experience of four years he found, that the expense of each pupil amounted only to fourteen pounds sterling a year, and, considering that professors and masters of every kind are employed, and servants, cloathing, board, lodging, firewood, light, repairs, and every other article, except house rent, are supported by this expense, the economy is indeed wonderful.
In 1790 also the celebrated English garden was begun in the environs of Munich. The land, made use of for this purpose, had formerly been a forest, or hunting ground, belonging to the Electors, but then in a state of wildness, and rather a desert, than the suburbs of a city. Sir Benjamin obtained the Elector's permission to convert this useless tract into a beautiful public garden, with a view to promote the agricultural interest of the country. He began by laying out extensive walks, promenades, streets, and races, and round the whole, an extent of several miles, he made a road, on which, at regular intervals, cottages and farm houses were erected. In these the tenants, or servants, who occupied, or superintended any part of the lands; resided. In one place a lake was made, and with the earth, which was taken out, a hill, or mound created, which gave to the whole a pleasant and picturesque aspect. In another a public coffee house was built, where the inhabitants of the city might retire, and partake of the various amusements of the garden. On an eminence a Chinese pagoda appears, which, through the dense foliage of the trees, has a charming effect. Every thing, that could add to the beauty of the place, was employed, nor was the utility of the plan neglected.
But what gives to the whole a variety and elegance, and at the same time excites the liveliest sensations in the heart of a spectator, is the marble monument, placed in one of the public squares of the garden. The Bavarians were too sensible
of the services, rendered by Sir Benjamin to the state, not to show some public testimony of their gratitude. This monument to the memory of Rumford was erected in 1795, four years after the garden was made ; but as it has so important an effect upon the scenery, and must always be noticed in a mention of this work, that inserting at this time the following account, which was furnished the writer by one, who has often enjoyed the delightful prospects, cannot be improper.
" Description of the monument, erected to Count Rum« ford, by the principal nobility, and other inhabitants of the “ city of Munich.
“ This monument, which is constructed of Bavarian free« stone and marble, stands in a public garden at Munich, « made by Count Rumford, commonly called the English gar“ den. It was erected during Count Rumford's absence « from Bavaria, and without his knowledge, in the autumn “ of the year 1795, while he was in England.
“ The monument is of a quadrangular form, and has two « principal fronts opposite to each other, which are both orna« mented with basso relievos and inscriptions.
“ The front towards the principal road, that leads from « the town through the garden, is decorated with a basso re6 lievo of two figures, representing the genius of plenty lead6 ing Bavaria, and strewing her path with flowers.
“ Under the basso relievo, upon a large block of polished “ marble, is an inscription in the German language, of which * the following is a literal translation.
“ Rumford, the friend of mankind,
“ Changed this once desert place
Into what thou now beholdest.” “On the opposite side of the monument there is a bust of Count Rumford, thought to be very like him, in Bavarian