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the most simple, and require no great skill or ingenuity in their preparation, the poor find great advantage in its use.

The object of this essay is to show the importance of cookery, as it respects national economy, the health, and the enjoyments of mankind ; and however different may be the pursuits of the epicure and the statesman, Rumford has promoted the interest of both. .

“ The plague of a smoking chimney is proverbial,” and, is Rumford's plans of reform, contained in his fourth essay, have not rendered the proverb obsolete, it is because his directions have not been accurately observed, or carefully executed. In this essay upon chimney fireplaces he has given numerous details and illustrations concerning the cause of the ascent of smoke, the mode of altering smoking chimneys, the means of increasing the quantity of radiant heat, and in short, satisfactorily shown how to make common fires more useful with less expense of fuel, than the common fireplaces requirę.

As the combined heat, or that, which passes up the chimney with the smoke and vapor, is probably four or five times greater, than that, which passes off, as radiant heat, which is the only part, that warms the room, the great difficulty is to form the chimney in such manner, as to diminish the quantity of combined heat, by increasing that of the radiant heat.

He found, that bricks and morter or firestone were the best materials, and that the sides of the fireplace, made of them, should form an angle of 135 degrees with the back. That the back should be one third the breadth of the fireplace in front, and carried perpendicularly up till it meets the breast, and end abruptly, leaving the throat of the chimney in the narrowest place about four inches wide. The sides of the fireplace should be plastered, and whitewashed, because they will then absorb less heat, and send into the room by reflection more radiant heat, than any other substance or color is capable of doing.

The back, the sides, and the breast of the fireplace should all be made smooth, and without any projection whatever.

The breast must be made round, or a little convex, from the inner side of the mantle to where it rises to form the forepart of the throat of the chimney. · Besides explaining the philosophical principles, on which the alterations in chimneys are to be made, and giving all the minute directions, necessary to be followed in these improvements, * he says, the expense of fuel by his own experiments is reduced one half. But much of the neatness, economy, and comfort of a fire depend on the management of the fuel.

“ Those, who have feeling enough,” says Count Rumford, “ to be made miserable by any thing careless, slovenly, and " wasteful, which happens under their eyes, who know what “ comfort is, and consequently are worthy the enjoyment of a clean hearth and a cheerful fire, should really either take 6 the trouble themselves to manage their fires, which indeed “ would rather be an amusement to them, than a trouble, or “ they should instruct their servants to manage them better.”

As coals are much used for fuel, especially in England, Rumford has given proper rules for improving the grates in open fireplaces. Nothing is obscure in his explanations, but every principle and direction is conveyed in language, pure, easy, and intelligible.

His fifth essay comprises “ a short account of the military “ academy at Munich ;" “ an account of the means used to

* Owing to the carelessness, conceit, or obstinacy of our masons, the plans, here recommended, have only been partially, if at all, followed. Among the many hundreds of fireplaces, which were altered under Rumford's own directions, and many were thought to be quite incurable, he has never been disappointed, but every one has fully answered his expectations. That there should be many old chimneys, which for the want of these alterations now continue to smoke, is not to be wondered at ; but that new ones should daily be erected, which by smoking render the rooms quite uncomfortable, is really astonishing.

If the masons will not examine new schenyes, and put them in practice, when such satisfactory evidence is produced of their efficacy, those persons, who are building, should see to it themselves ; and, if they will only take the trouble to construct the chimneys in the neighbourhood of the fireplacepropo erly, they may 'rest assured, that their houses will be freed from the plague of a smoking chimney.

“ improve the breed of horses and horned cattle in Bavaria ç and the Palatinate ;" “ an account of the measures, adopted “ for putting an end to usury at Munich,” and “an aco “ count of a scheme for employing the soldiery in Bavaria in “ repairing the highways and public roads." The last has not yet been effected, owing to some particular reasons ; but the Count says, “ perhaps a time will come, when they will “ cease to exist."

(To be continued.)

BIOGRAPHY.

MEMOIRS OF THE AUTHOR OF ANACHARSIS.

[Continued from page 19.]

I TAKE a pleasure in adding here the names of such persons of science or taste, as I had an opportunity of knowing in Italy. I saw often at Naples the Canon Marachi, Count Garola, the Duke of Noia, and Count Pianura. It would be difficult to unite mpre piety, more modesty, and more knowledge, than was possessed by the first. He was then laboring upon the inscriptions, found at Heraclea. This work, a monument of profound erudition and invincible courage, would leave nothing to be desired, if it were not in cumbered with too many notes, which, though they may be instructing, do not interest, because they are useless. Count Garola gave the most flattering reception to those enlightened strangers, who had been brought to Naples by the new discoveries. The Duke of Noia had formed of the medals of Great Greece alone an immense collection. Count Pianura was not contented with this series alone ; his cabinet contained every species. He had the complaisance to give me several, and I begged him to add that of Cornelia Supera,

which he had lately explained,* and by which he has shown that Princess to have been the wife of the Emperor Æmilian ; but he dared not part with it without the consent of the King. I asked the Duke of Ossuna to speak to the minister, Tanucci, who replied with a despotic importance, “ if the “ medal in question has a duplicate in the cabinet of Count “ Pianura, he may dispose of one of them, if it is single, will “ not permit it to go out of his dominions.”

At Rome I was acquainted with Father Paciaudi, a Theatine ; with Father Corsini, général des ecoles pies ; with the Fathers Iacquier and le Seur, with Father Boscowitz, a Jesuit ; Mess. Bottari and Asemanni, prefects of the library of the Vatican ; the Marquis Lucatelli, guardian of this library; the Abbé Venuti, the Chevalier Vettori, with the Cardinals Passionei, Albani, and Spinelli, to whom I dedicated my explanation of the Mosaic of Palestine.

At Florence with Mess. Stosch and Gori ; at Pésaro with M. Passeri and Annibal Olivieri, to whom since my return to France I addressed a letter about some Phenician monuments.

At the end of January 1757 the Ambassador returned to Paris. Appointed shortly after Ambassador to Vienna, he wrote to me to engage me to return with the Ambassadress. On our arrival he informed me of the arrangement, he had made for me with the new minister, M. de Saint Florentin. I should have accompanied them to Vienna; thence Ishould have gone at the expense of the king to visit Greece and the islands of the Archipelago, and should have returned by Marseilles. But, however attracting this project might have been for me, I was obliged to renounce it, because after so long an absence I could not leave the cabinet of medals any longer closed.

My life has been so connected with that of M. and Madame de Choiseul, they have had such an influence upon all the events of it, that it is impossible for me to speak of myself without speaking of them. No astonishment then must be excited, if they are constantly mentioned in these memoirs.

* Lettera al reverendissimo Padre D. Gian Francesco Baldini, generale pella congregazione de clerici regolari di Somasca Napoli 1751.

At the close of the year 1758 M. de Stainville, afterwards Duke de Choiseul, was recalled from Vienna, and made minister of foreign affairs. The first moment I saw him, he told me it was the duty of himself and his wife to occupy themselves about my fortune, and mine to instruct them in my views. I did not expect so much goodness; and forced to explain myself I answered, that a pension of six thousand livres upon a benefice, joined to my salary, as guardian of the medals, would be sufficient for me to bring up two nephews, whom I had at college, and a third, whom I intended soon to place there. I blushed immediately at my indiscretion ; he smiled, and encouraged me.

I protest here, that this was the only favor, I ever demanded of M. and Madame de Choiseul. I acknowledge at the same time, that solicitation was not necessary with them ; and, if any one should ask to what I owed a fortune so considerable for a man of letters, I should answer, to that strong disposition, which they had to contribute to the happiness of others, to that profound sensibility, which did not permit them to forget attentions to them, to that noble and generous character, which persuaded them, as regards sentiment, that nothing is done, when every thing is not done, that can be done. Notwithstanding as such noble dispositions are almost always dangerous in those, with whom power is depose ited, when they are not careful in watching them, I ought to observe after examples without number, that M. and Madame de Choiseul would never have consented to do the least injustice to serve their friends. I can never repay all, that I owe them; the only thing, which now remains, is to perpetuate in my family the recollection of so many benefactions,

· In 1759 M. de Choiseul, having obtained for the Bishop of Evreaux, his brother, the Archbishopric of Alby, gave me a pension of four thousand livres upon this benefice.

There appeared in 1760 a virulent parody of a scene in Cinna against the Duke ď' Aumont and M. d'Argental. The parents and relations excited all the court against M. Marmontel, suspected of being the author of this satire, because

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