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« Never let the affairs of one state be so involved with “ those of another by any special or partial agreement, as to « oblige you to support your friends in unjust or oppressive 66 dealings.
« Reverence the God of your fathers. Seek him in the « way of his appointment by prayer and sacrifice. Withs out inquiring minutely into the reasons, on which he ap« pointed the ritual, observe it carefully.' Observe the stat
ed feasts, and read the law at them. It is enough for us, " that, when God appointed the feasts, he saw reason for " them. You have all been witnesses to the favorable hear" ing, he has granted to me, and his gracious acceptance of * my sacrifices. You have tasted and seen, that the Lord « is very gracious to those, who seek him; and you have « learned from the fate of the old world, that when men turn “ from him, his indignation is very terrible. But it will be “ vain for you hypocritically to practise the ritual, if you do " not cultivate the moral principles and the divine doctrines “ of the law in your hearts, to make them the constant rule “ of your lives ; for God is of purer eyes than to behold “ iniquity, and he cannot approve of any sin.
« Observe these rules, and do them ; so shall your days “ be prosperous, and your years happy."
When Noah concluded his charge, he offered sacrifice, at which all the principal men assisted, and renewed their engagements in all future relations to observe the divine law, and cause it to be enforced in their respective territories. But Ham, having no territory, could not be admitted to the compact.
To be continued.)
I BELIEVE the following particulars formed the obá ject of your inquiry, when you were last with us.
Commonly Juventa is made to signify the period of youth, and young men ; but to these I think we may add a third sense, namely, that of vigorous manhood. The following are my authorities ; which probably may be considerably multiplied, as they are only such, as have occurred in reading Latin authors occasionally, for other objects, during the last eighteen or twenty months.
Florus in his Proæmium speaks even of flos juventæ, not only as a later age, than adolescentia, but as equivalent to quædam robusta maturitas, previous to old age ; for he divides the progress of Rome into four stages, viz. infantia, adolescentia, juventa [quædam], and senectus.
Servius (in Æn. v. 295.) is represented as asserting, that Varro placed Juventa immediately before Senecta, or Senec• tus ; which agrees with Florus.
Censorinus makes Varro even go a step beyond, by beginning the age of juvenis at 30, and making it cease at 45 ; Varro deriving the term from eo quod rempublicam in re militari possunt juvare. His whole classification is stated to have been, as follows. The age of the puer ended at 15 ; that of the adolescens at 30 ; that of the juvenis at 45 ; that of the seniores at 60; all beyond being senes. See Cens. de Die Natali.
Aulus Gellius says the same thing, as to the duration of juventas till about 45. His authority is Tubero, who, in writing the reign of Servius Tullius, first tells us, that those, who were under 17, were pueri ; above which age began the period for military service. He then says, the age of the juniores lasted till 46 ; when the age of the seniores commenced. You will observe, that he speaks of juniores, not of juvenes ; but what follows makes the example reach our
caśè. Aulus Gellius affirms, that Tubero reported what had thus been done by a very prudent prince, Servius Tullius, in order that we might learn, what were the distinctions of their ancestors, as to boys, persons of an intermediate age, and old men ; i. e. discrimina * * pueritiæ, juventa, senectæ. See Aulius Gellius x. 28.
Thus the authorities amount to six; viz. Florus, Servius, Varro, Censorinus, Tubero, and Aulus Gellius. Virgil's expression, viridique juventá, might be opposed to a more advanced juventa, but I do not insist on trifles.
You will remember, Dear Sir, that this letter is provoked. by you.
I am, Dear Sir,
November 15, 1805. TO THE EDITORS OF THE LITERARY MISCELLANY.
IF a writer, who introduces a new term, which he finds necessary or convenient for expressing more clearly his ideas, when treating of any particular art or science, is considered, as making a valuable addition to the language, in which he writes, the introduction of a word, not of partial but general utility, must make an addition of still greater value. It is presumed therefore, that the editors of the Literary Miscellany will view with candor an attempt to make an accession to our own language of the kind last mentioned, by admitting into the number of its prepositions, or rather legitimating a compound word, which has hitherto found its way only into conversation, and that of the more familiar kind. The word intended is ONTO. Against the introduction of such a preposition, as this, no objection, it is presumed, will be made, unless it should be considered, as unnecessary, and contended, that the idea, to be conveyed by it, may be otherwise expressed, not less properly nor concisely. In opposi
Vol. II. No. 3. Dd
tion to this it is asserted with confidence, that the idea, which this word directly conveys to the mind, cannot be definitely and without any ambiguity expressed by any other single word ; nor without great difficulty by a circumlocution. The expediency of adopting the proposed word will immediately appear, when I attempt to give an instance, illustrating what has been just affirmed. I wish to express the action, which is ended, when a person has removed from any place without a house to the threshold of its door, so as to stand upon it. If I say he has walked or stepped upon the threshold, it may be asked how far he has walked or stepped upon it. The above mode of expression represents the whole action, as performed on the threshold. If I say he came to the threshold, I do not express the whole action. I do not say, that he ascended it, or was upon it, when the action ended. And if I say, that he ascended it, I may perhaps say what is not true. The house may be so ancient, and the door so low, that in entering it there shall be no ascent. But supposing it were proper to say, that a person ascends the threshold, the stage, or the scoffold, yet it would hardly be correct to say, that a member of the house of representatives ascended the floor of the senate chamber to communicate a message to the senate ; especially if both houses sat on the same floor, or on the same story of the building. The phrase to enter upon seems to bid fairest to answer the purpose of expressing what we have hitherto tried in vain to express without the aid of the proposed preposition. It will not probably be thought incorrect to say, that a person entered upon the floor of the senate chamber ; or that an army entered upon the field of battle. But shall I not use an awkward kind of language, if I say, that a neighbour entered upon the roof of my house to extinguish a fire, though he went out at the scuttle, or went up by a ladder ?
Let us now see if all ambiguity, impropriety, and circumlocution may not be avoided in any of the instances, adduced, by making use of the little word, which stands candidate for admission into the class of prepositions. I shall be in no danger of being misunderstood, or expressing more or less, than I intend, when I say, that a friend stepped onto the threshold of my door; that an actor goes onto the stage, or that a malefactor goes onto the scaffold. There is no ambiguity nor absurdty in saying, that a representative went anto the floor of the senate chamber with a message, or was called onto it to answer an accusation. An army marches onto the field of battle. A military company is ordered onto the parade. A man goes up, or goes out onto the roof of a house. And I add a man leaps anta a fence; he steps onto a slack wire, and he tumbles onto the floor. It is only observed further, that analogy is clearly in favor of the word in question. It is compounded of two prepositions exactly in the manner of the word, in#0; and there is the same reason for combining in the one case, as in the other.'
If the arguments, which have been used above in favor of legitimating this compound preposition, be satisfactory, you will, gentlemen, if you think proper, add the influence, which the acknowledged merit of your publication gives you, to forward the claims of this modest candidate for honor and use fulness, by introducing him to public notice; bringing him anto the literary theatre, and permitting him to act a part in your future exhibitions. With respect, Gentlemen,
Yours &c. N. N.
1 HE only genuine CHALDEE, now extant, is said to be contained in nearly 300 verses in the Hebrew Scriptures; 200 of these are in the book of DANIEL, from the second verse of the third chapter to the end of the seventh