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-me of the 91st book states the Sertorian war in Spain. Besides he observed in the front of one page LIB. XCI, and of the other TITI LIVI; but in a character so very minute, as scarcely to be legible. The form of it, as the margin had been cut, could not well be ascertained ; but it appeared to have been nearly what we call a small folio. The character, in which it was written, is that, which is called uncialis; which is generally accounted the most antique, and is found in the smallest number of manuscripts
. He compared it with the most celebrated ancient writings, the Vatican Virgil and Terence and the Medicean Virgil, hitherto deemed the most ancient extant; and perceived, that it yielded to none in point of excellence and antiquity. When he was afterwards at Naples, he met with several Latin words, which had been inscribed on some of the walls of Herculaneum, which he found to resemble exactly those of the manuscript. On the whole he does not scruple to give it a first place among ancient manuscripts in the Latin language ; and, lest he should be deemed rash in forming this judgment, he introduces a learned Italian, the Abbate Vito Giovenazzi, particularly sagacious in these inquiries, as joining him in the same opinion.
The parchment of this fragment is very thin, and of a yellow color. There are two columns in each page, containing thirty lines ; and the words have no intervening space to distinguish them from each other.
This precious relick he published at Hamburg in 1773 in a small folio in 16 pages, and dedicated it to Dr. Kennicott. It is preceded by a statement of the discovery ; then are given the four pages of the fragment, two columns each, in a kind of fac simile ; and then a transcript in the more modern form ; to which are added a few annotations and criticisms. There are some blanks, occasioned by illegible words ; yet, short and incomplete, as it is, it is nevertheless an acceptable addition to the excellent history, of which it makes a part. ,
The following is a literal translation.*
* The translation is copied from the Gentleman's Magazine for the year 1772, as are some of the preliminary remarks; but the chief are from the preface of Mr. Bruns.
Argument of the fragment, Sertorius at length takes Contrebia.* His army being in winter quarters, he orders warlike instruments to be prepaf-* ed, and, assembling the ambassadors of the nations, urges them to finish the war. In the spring he sends Perperna to" the nation of the Ilurcaones, and gives instructions to Hertu. leius for renewing the campaign. He himself, after marching his army through several nations, encamps near Calaguris Nasica ;t gives some orders to Masius and Instelus, and, passing through the territory of the Umcones, arrives at Vam reia.
THE FRAGMENT. Nevertheless, as he persisted, and was extremely vigilant, another turret, raised on the same spot at break of day, astone ished the enemy;
At the same time the turret of the town, which was its chief defence, its foundation being undermined, began to open with large chinks, and **** with fire. The Contrebians, terrified at once with the apprehension of the flames and its falling, fled trembling from the wall, and the whole multitude exclaimed, that ambassadors should be sent to surrender the city. The same valor, which had attacked the insolent, rendered the conquerer more mild. Hostages being accepted, he exacted a small sum of money, and took away all their arms.
The freemen, who had deserted, he ordered to be brought to him alive, and made them kill the fugitive slaves, who were more numerous, than themselves ; they accordingly dispatched them, and threw them down from the wall. Contrebia being taken with a great loss of troops in four and forty days, and L. Instelus being left there,
** he led his army to the river, Hiberus. There, fixing his winter quarters near the city, called Castra Ælia, he himself remained in camp, and assembled a meeting of the allied states in the city. He had given notice throughout the province, that arms should be provided according to the abilities
Now Tortosa, or New Castile. † Now Calahorra in Old Castile.
of each district; which being viewed, he ordered the soldiers to return the rest. Those, which, by frequent marches, or
were made new, he divided in the morning among the centurions then too he provided with arms the garments, which pay given to the smiths
and then required an account of what shops bitumen ***, and an account being given, how much could be procured each day. All the instruments of war were therefore prepared at once. Nor did the workmen want materials
espepecially being prepared, nor were they wanting to their respective work. At length, the ambassadors of all the nations being assembled, the things, which he himself and what he had done in taking the enemies' towns, he laid before them, and urged them to finish the remainder of the war, briefly informing them how much it was the interest of the province of Spain, that his party should be superior. The assembly then being dismissed, and having ordered *•*. In the beginning of the spring he sent M. Perpernat with twenty thousand foot and fifteen hundred horse into the country of the Ilurcaones to guard its seacoast; giving him instructions what road he should take to defend the allied towns, which Pompey might besiege, and how his own army might escape the ambuscades of Pompey. At the same time he sent letters to Herennuleius, who was in the same place, and into another province to L. Hertuleius, directing how he would have the war carried on; above all, that he would so defend the allied states, as not to venture a battle with Me tellus, to whom he was no match, either in authority or in strength, lest he himself should ** counsel, -- towards ,, nor did he think him in that if the war should be protracted, the enemy, as he had the sea at his back, and all the provinces in his power, would receive provisions from all parts by ships ; but they, after consuming what had been provided the preceding summer, would be in want of every thing. ** Perperna to the seacost, that those things, which were yet safe from the * * of the enemy and, if occasion offered, might attack them unawares. He himself with
* The word in the original here is inixogivitium-udio, which, corrupted as it is, the editor acknowledges himself unable to supply. The letters, he adds, are remarkably distinct, especially X and VITIVM. Whether there is one letter or two between M and V is not clear. IXO perhaps may be substituted for IPSQ. See Suetonius in vita Augusti, $ 88, where IXI occurs for IPSI.
Editor. + This Perperna was the traitor, who afterwards assassinated Sertorius.
It appears both from Livy and Orosius b. 5, that Hertuleius, afterwards giving battle to Metellus in the province of Bætica, lost 20,000 of his troops, and, escaping into Lusitania, was there slain at Segovia.
determined to march to the Hiberones and Autalcones, from whom when the towns of Celtiberia were attacked, his assistance being entreated, and guides being sent to show the Roman
whether he should turn to the seacost in order to drive Pompey from Ilurcaonia and Contestania, both nations his allies, or towards Metullus and Rusitania.* Meditating on these things, Sertorius led his army unmolested beyond the river, Hiberus, through a peaceable country, without offending any one. Proceeding thence into the territories of the Bursaones, Casuantini, and Graccuritani, the corn being all destroyed, and trodden down, he came to Calaguris Nasica, a friendly city, and, passing the river near the town on a bridge, which he made, there encamped. The next day he sent M. Masius, Quæstor, to the Arvaci and Cerindones, to enlist soldiers in those states, and to carry forage from thence to Contrebia, which is otherwise called Leucada, near which town was the most convenient passage to the Berones, into which country he had resolved to march his army; and sent C. Instelus, general of the horse, to Segovia, and into the country of the Vacrei to procure horses, ordering him with his horsemen to wait for him at Contrebia. Dismissing them, he himself, marching his army through the country of the Umcones, encamped on the borders of the Virones. On the next day, marching forward with his horse to view the roads, and ordering his foot to follow in a square, he arrived at Vareia, the strongest town in that district. · He came upon them unexpected, and on all sides with the horse of his own nation and of the Autric
APOLOGY FOR EPICURISM.
« Inter sapores fertur alitum primus
Martial. It will doubtless be considered a crime against morals to tell and to defend the pleasures of the Epicure. We are so enslaved to the authority of Addison and Johnson, that nothing can be proper, which is condemned by their moral speculations. We are so wedded to the Spartan cookery of our country, merely because we have always been used to it, that, when a stranger tells us of the luxurious dainties of England and France, we are disposed to think, that he talks largely, like a traveller; and, if at length we are forced to believe the narration, our ignorance of good living is changed into moral sensibility, and immediately ensues a violent philippic against the pleasures of the table. Besides we are afraid, that the steady habits of the country will be altered or destroyed by the introduction of foreign luxuriousness; and therefore we think, that any elogy of this corrupting cause should be read with indifference, and dismissed with forgetfulness. But the grave and learned professors and sages of literature will consider it a crime, far beyond all possibility of excuse or extenuation, to introduce the praises of good living among students, who will learn the more, the less they eat; who ought to reverence Minerva, as the chief of divinities, and Parnassus, as the consecrated ground of science, with more awfulness and zeal, than the follower of Mahomet venerates the holy prophet of God, and prays towards the holy city of Mecca. These charges perhaps cannot be eluded. I shall leave them to the reader's refutation, and shall content myself with observing, that the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge have seldom been accused of inatten tion to literature, and yet in those venerable gothic monas teries the novices and monks, on the celebration of beneface