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that of a child, growing to manhood. The child for want of langnage indicates his wishes by looks and gestures ; at length he appropriates names to individual objects, and by increasing observation is capable of speaking in abstract terms, Figures of speech and allusions to natural objects, which characterize the early writings of all nations, were not the expedient of affectation, but the resort of necessity. They were not used for the mere purpose of decorating style, until language became complete ; when men, not content with making their expressions perspicuous, sought to render them beautiful. It is remarked by Quintillian, that figures, which were at first the invention of necessity, became at length the decoration of thought. . .
Mr. Heron proceeds to compose the circumstances of society, in which eloquence flourished in the ancient and modern times. He very justly remarks, that all the peculiarities of the situation and government of Athens were promotive of eloquence. Those commotions, which filled peaceable minds with dismay, fired the ambitious with the prospect of rising to distinction. Power, the direction of the public energies and the public will, was the reward of oratory. Peor ple thronged in their assemblies, and freely surrendered them selves to the orator to be charmed and guided at his pleasure. The love of glory elated the genius of Greece, and it is not surprising, that the same country, which produced generals so heroic, should have produced orators so impressive.
Our author however considers the invention of printing, as countervailing in favor of what he stiles written eloquence all the advantages of the ancients. Printing enlarged the sphere of literature ; distant nations became allied in the cause of learning, and by the dispersion of books became mutually serviceable in the great confederacy of letters. Still he confesses, that occasions of general interest and alarm, such as the reformation of religion occasions, which must have excited the greatest efforts of oral and written eloquence, did not produce any specimens to be compared with the ancients. He describes the clergy of France, Italy, and Eng= land, as being a worthy class of men, too happy in the poss session of their benefices to disturb themselves with the agi, tations of powerful speaking. But he contends, that at times when great national questions were debated, and the magnis tude of the subjects excited general anxiety, the British par liament have exhibited eloquence, not unworthy the Greek or Roman name. It is honorable to British literature, that 80 many illustrious speakers are recorded as early, as the civil war ; that both in England and Scotland at the union of those countries, that in the competition of parties in the reign of Queen Aune, that previous to the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole, and during the American revolution, there were so many ambitious rivals in manly eloquence. Yet it is a just observation, made by Mr. Hume, that the circumstance of there being so many orators of nearly the same esti, mation proves, that no one of them approximated to the per fection of the art. In Rome there were many contemporary orators of different grades, but Cicero was beyond competi, tion. When Demosthenes declaimed, people collected from the remotest parts of Greece to witness the wonderful pow. ers of that man. But the prime minister of England has never attracted 90 much curiosity, as a favorite comedian ; and the citizens of London have sauntered under the win dows of parliament, while the fate of nations was deciding over their heads...
The journal of a tour into the Territory Northwest of the Alleghany
Mountains ; made in the spring of the year 1803 ; with a geographical and historical account of the state of Ohio. Il lustrated with original maps and views. By THADDEUS MASON HARRYS A. M. S. H. S. Boston, Manning en Loring, 1805, pp. 270.
O description of books has multiplied more within a few years, than books of travels ; and from no descrip tion of men are we more liable to impositions, than from the writers of travels. Foreigners, who have taken a glance of our country, passed rapidly through a few of its states in stage coaches, and seen some of its principal towns, have returned to their ignorant countrymen, and told them about as much truth concerning its soil, its inhabitants, and their occupations, as the author of Gulliver's travels haš told his readers of a minor race of men and their whimsical pursuits. · .
But the itinerary of every observing and honest traveller is valuable, because it opens a new source of information to the historian and the geographer. He deserves our gratitude; who publishes his own observations, and such, as are derived from reputable characters, which extend the knowledge of our own or a foreign country. He deserves more gratitude, than almost any other description of authors, because his views are very unaspiring. He must relate some things, which will be thought trifling. His highest ambition is gratified by gaining the confidence of his readers, and telling them something new, or something more concerning things, with which they were but partially acquainted.
The information, given us in Mr. Harris' tour, is the result of “ a journey for his health.” His work consists,
I. Of a journal, beginning at the foot of the Alleghi aty Mountains, including his excursions from Marietta and his teturn from that place.
II. Of a geographical and historical account of the state of Ohio.
The journal was originally sketched " for the gratification « of the family and a few friends” of the author. It sometimes resembles the mariner's diary, and exhibits the state of the weather, the direction of the wind, the course of the travellers, and the distance of a day's ride. But we are occasionally delighted with a picturesque description of nature's scenery, and willingly stop with the traveller to admire its extraordinary grandeur and sublimity. We are gratified to see him collecting his plants, and are patient while he describes them. We follow him with pleasure to the bountiful streams, which beautify and fertilize the country, through which he passed, and are grateful to him for ascertaining their sources and their extent, and the advancement of their settlements.
Mr. Harris corroborates the account, which has been givën of the humble condition of the back settlers in Virginia ; and contrasts their miserable habitations, and feeble fences; and exhausted farms, with the commodious dwelling houses, well fenced lands, and agricultưral advancements of the Ohiơ inhabitants. The poverty of the Virginians he ascribes to “ hunting and slavery ;" the prosperity of the people of O: hio to their New England habits and personal industry:
The journal concludes with an account of the roads and distances from Lancaster in Pennsylvania over the mountains to Marietta, and from Marietta to Lancaster by rout somewhat different ; also a table of thërmometrical observations from April 6 to June 13 1803 ; and meteorological observations, inade at Grenville college from the begin: ning of March to the end of July 1803. .
The geographical and historical part of the work under review is certainly more valuable, than the journal. We presume it is generally correct; for in cases, where the author did not write from his own observation, he relied on the
authority of respectable men in Marietta, who had résided in the state for several years. *
Mr. Harris informs us, that the forest trees of the Ohio country “ are such, as are common to Virginia and the Cao rolinas ;" but, as the works of Bartram and Catesby, which describe them, are not in the hands of all the curious, we think he should have given us à general catalogue of the growth of the forest. It appears by his account, that the wild fruits are numerous and luxuriant ; and that the fruits of trees and vines, particularly peaches, and grapes, and melons, are cultivated with wonderful success.
Mr. Harris has described the several rivers, with which the territory abounds, from the majestic Ohio to the Little Miami. The country is finely watered; the rivers afford much useful, inland navigation ; and on the Muskingum ships of more than two hundred tons had been built previous to the year 1803.
The account, which Mr. Harris has given of the antiquițies and curiosities of the country, which he visited, is a vals uable and pleasing part of his work. It may sometimes be thought, that his speculations exhibit more learning, than probability, and more of the ingenious, than of the satisfying. The mounds and ramparts, which he has described, are very extraordinary, and deserve all the attention, which he devoted to them. We are disposed to think his calculation and that of Dr. Cutler, whom he quotes, not far from the truth, when they date the erection of these works nine or ten centuries back.t
The following is Mr. Harris' description of one of these mounds, taken partly from some remarks of Dr. Cutler, corrected by a recent measurement, and his own observations on the spot.
* Mr. Harris acknowledges himself indebted for much information to General Putnam, Judge Gilman, and Judge Woodbridge; to the first of whom he dedicates his work.
+ This calculation is made by estimating the age of the trees on the sure face of the mounds, and from the proofs of a previous growth on the same surface:
Vol. II. No. 3.