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I. Of a journal, beginning at the foot of the Alleghi any Mountains, including his excursions from Marietta and his return from that place.
II. Of a geographical and historical account of the state of Ohio.
The journal was originally sketched" for the gratification is of the family and a few friends” of the author. It sometimes resembles the mariner's diary, and exhibits the state of the weather, the direction of the wind, the course of the travellers, and the distance of a day's ride. But we are occasionally delighted with a picturesque description of nature's scenery, and willingly stop with the traveller to admire its extraordinary grandeur and sublimity. We are gratified to see him collecting his plants, and are patient while he describes them. We follow him with pleasure to the bountiful streams, which beautify and fertilize the country, through which he passed, and are grateful to him for ascertaining their sources and their extent, and the advancement of their settlements.
Mt. Harris corroborates the account, which has been givën of the humble condition of the back settlers in Virginia ; and contrasts their miserable habitations, and feeble fences, and exhausted farms, with the commodious dwelling houses, well fenced lands, and agricultural advancements of the Ohio inhabitants. The poverty of the Virginians he ascribes to “ hunting and slavery ;" the prosperity of the people of Ohio to their New England habits and personal industry.
The journal concludes with an account of the roads and distances from Lancaster in Pennsylvania over the mountains to Marietta, and from Marietta to Lancaster by : rout somewhat different ; lso a table of thermometrical observations from April 6 to June 13 1803 ; and meteorological observations, made at Grenville college from the beginning of March to the end of July 1803.
The geographical and historical part of the work under review is certainly more valuable, than the journal. We presume it is generally correct; for in cases, where the author did not write from his own observation, he relied on the
authority of respectable men in Marietta, who had résided in the state for several years. *
Mr. Harris informs us, that the forest trees of the Ohio country are such, as are common to Virginia and the Ca* rolinas," but, as the works of Bartram and Catesby, which describe them, are not in the hands of all the curious, we think he should have given us à general catalogue of the growth of the forest. It appears by his account, that the wild fruits are numerous and luxuriant ; and that the fruits of trees and vines, particularly peaches, and grapes, and melons, are cultivated with wonderful success.
Mr. Harris has described the several rivers, with which the territory abounds, from the majestic Ohiö to the Little Miami. The country is finely watered; the rivers afford much useful, inland navigation ; and on the Muskingum ships of more than two hundred tons had been built previous to the year 1803.
The account, which Mr. Harris has given of the antiquities and curiosities of the country, which he visited, is a valuable and pleasing part of his work. It may sometimes be thought, that his speculations exhibit more learning, than probability, and more of the ingenious, than of the satisfying. The mounds and ramparts, which he has described, are very extraordinary, and deserve all the attention, which he devoted to them. We are disposed to think his calculation and that of Dr. Cutler, whom he quotes, not far from the truth, when they date the erection of these works nine or ten centuries back.t
The following is Mr. Harris' description of one of these mounds, taken partly from some remarks of Dr. Cutler, corrected by a recent measurement, and his own observations on the spot.
* Mr. Harris acknowledges himself indebted for much information to General Putnam, Judge Gilman, and Judge Woodbridge ; to the first of whom he dedicates his work.
+ This calculation is made by estimating the age of the trees on the surface of the mounds, and from the proofs of a previous growth on the same surface:
Vol. II. No. 3:
• The situation of these works is on an elevated plain, above the presene “ bank of the Muskingum, on the east side and about half a mile from its “ junction with the Ohio. They consist of walls and mounds of earth in di“rect lines and in square and circular forms.
“ The largest square fort, by some called the town, contains forty acres, en“ compassed by a wall of earth from six to ten feet high, and from twenty five to " thirty six feet in breadth at the base. On each side are three openings, at equal “ distances, resembling twelve gateways. The entrances at the middle are the * largest, particularly that on the side next to the Muskingum. From this “ outlet is a covert way, formed of two parallel walls of earth, two hundred " and thirty one feet distant from each other, ineasuring from centre to centre. “ The walls at the most elevated part on the inside are twenty one feet in
height, and forty two in breadth at the base, but on the outside average one
ly five feet high. This forms a passage of about three hundred and sixty feet « in length, leading by a gradual descent to the low grounds, where it pro“bably at the time of its construction reached the margin of the river. Its “ walls commence at sixty feet from the ramparts of the fort, and increase in
elevation as the way descends toward the river ; and the bottom is crowned " in the centre, in the manner of a well formed turnpike road.
“ Within the walls of the fort at the northwest corner is an oblong, elevated square one hundred and eighty eight feet long, one hundred and thirty two « broad, and nine feet high; level on the summit, and nearly perpendicular “ at the sides. At the centre of each of the sides the earth is projected, form
ing gradual ascents to the top, equally regular, and about six feet in width. “ Near the south wall is another elevated square, one hundred and fifty feet by one hundred and twenty, and eight feet high ; similar to the other, ex
cepting that instead of an ascent to go up on the side next the wall, there “ is a hollow way ten feet wide leading twenty feet towards the centre, and then rising with a gradual slope to the top.
“ At the southeast corner is a third elevated square, one hundred and eight « by fifty four feet, with ascents at the ends; but not so high nor perfect as " the two others.
“ A little to the southwest of the centre of the foot is a circular mound, “ about thirty feet in diameter and five in height; near which are four small “excavations at equal distances, and opposite each other.
“ At the southwest corner of the fort is a semicircular parapet, crowned ** with a mound, which guards the opening in the wall.
“ Towards the south east is a smaller fort, containing twenty acres, with a "gateway in the centre of each side and at each corner. These openings are 56 defended with circular mounds.
« On the outside of the snaller fort is a mound, in the form of a sugar“ loaf, of a magnitude and height, which strike the beholder with astonishis ment.
Its base is a regular circle one hundred and fifteen feet in diameter ; " and its perpendicular altitude is thirty feet. It is surrounded with a ditch “ four feet deep and fifteen wide, and defended by a parapet four feet high, « through which is an opening or gateway towards the fort twenty feet « wide.”
“ These works,” Mr. H. remarks, “are not comparable “ either in height or extent to some others, that have been “ discovered in the same territory."
Concerning his conjectures relative to the peopling of America, founded on the resemblance which many Asiatic
mounds bear to those at Marietta &c. we make no marks. They appear to him perfectly satisfactory. He quotes Herodotus for an account of the tumuli of the Southern kings, and traces many similar works, which are found in Northern Europe, to the same Scythian source.
Mr. Harris concludes this part of his work with some his torical remarks on the purchase, cession, &c. of the territory, and a sketch of the wars and treaties with the Indians.
In the appendix are preserved some “judicious observa. tions” on the navigation of the Ohio, addressed to the earl of Hillsborough in the year 1770 ; several acts of Congress and papers of the Ohio company relative to the territory; a treaty of peace between government and the Wyandots, Delawares, &c.; an act, enabling the people of the Eastern division of the territory N. W. of the Ohio to form a constitution, and to be admitted into the Union ; the constitution of the State, &c.
The maps and views, at the end of the volume, add something to its price, and a little to its value.
An abridgement of the history of New England for the use of young persons, by HANNAH ADAMS. Printed
for the author, and for sale by B. & 7. Homans, and John West. A. Newell, printer, Devonshire street, Boston, July 1805. 12mo. pp. 185.
The schools of New England have, for several years, been supplied with books of almost every description. The public has been inundated with spelling books, exercises in reading and in speaking, catechisms, abridgments of grammar, geography, and arithmetic, all of which profess to be improvements upon their predecessors.
Many of these have conduced to useful purposes. But one evil has resulted from them to an alarming degree ;, which is the almost total exclusion of the Bible from our
schools. With pleasure we observe, that this rage for innovation is gradually subsiding ; and that this holy book is regaining some degree of attention.
While other subjects have been exhausted, the History of New England was suffered to pass almost wholly neglected, till the industrious author of the work before us arrested public attention,
“ Her original design,” as she informs us, was to prepare a “summary history of New England for the use of schools. “But the difficulty of reading ancient records, of decipher“ing the chirography of former amanuenses, and of selecting “ from cumbrous files of papers as well, as from numerous
large printed works, original facts, and historical documents, “ exercised her eyes so severely, as almost to deprive her of " the use of them. Fearful from this circumstance, whether « she should be able to proceed any further, and unwilling
to disappoint the expectation, she had raised in those, who “had patronised her labors by subscribing, she sent the “ compilation to the press in a form less condensed, than she “ had intended.” The consequence was, that her book, being a large octavo, was not adapted, either from its size or price, to the end proposed.
She was hence encouraged to make the abridgment now before the public.
From her established reputation in this kind of learned labor much was expected. It is but just to say, that she has fully answered every reasonable expectation,
A work of this nature to be useful should be written in a simple style ; it should be authentic, chronological, general, and impartial.
It is authentic. The faithful compiler has ranged the whole field of New England history. No nook, nor corner is left unexplored. The dear bought fruits of her industry eminently appear in her larger edition. She has however exhibited ample documents of the first authority in the present work. Chronology is, in like manner, indispensable to a good history, No one has read Millot's elements of genes