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POSTSCRIPT TO THE CRITICISM ON

JUVENT'A &c.*

VV HAT has been said of Juventa and Juvenis may be applied, mutatis mutandis, to several words in other languages, having original reference to some of the younger periods of human life ; for we shall soon have occasion to see why the application is limited.

Thus saīs in the Greek language, which in common acceptation signifies a boy, or youth, is an appellation, often given to persons of maturer ages. Hence in the Greek version of Daniel ii. 4 and 7, the whole body of magicians, astrologers, sorcerers, Chaldæans, and wise men, immediately attached to Nebuchadnezzar, twice call themselves raides. Nor do they use the term merely from affected humility, as being the political children of their prince ; for Matthew, though writing in the third person, speaks in our Greek Testament of Herod having boys, or attendants, with whom he conversed about John the baptist. A lord also in one of our Saviour's parables has his raides and radiorai, or men servants and maid servants, who are beaten by his steward; while on the other hand, in the slaughter of Bethlehem, children of two years old and under are called raides.t

I do not instance the Cyropædia of Xenophon on this occasion ; for, though naidsíce signifies instruction generally, I am not certain what is intended by it in the case before us. The Cyropædia comprehends an account not only of the family, natural disposition, and education of Cyrus so far, as these laid the foundation of his supposed peculiarity of talent in governing men, but it details the institutions, which he formed for the regulation of his subjects, his enemies, and his family, as well, as recites the leading particulars of his life and of

* Vide page 216.

+ See Greek Testament, Matt. xiv. 2, Luke xii. 45, and Matt. ii. 16. I refer to books in the hands of every student for these examples.

his death, which last the author states to have happened in his old age. If we compare the commencement of the first and the close of the last books of this work by Xenophon, we shall perhaps think, that the title, as it respects Cyrus, may be taken both in a passive and an active sense.

Ilæīs, as has been observed, signifies a servant in the Greek language ; and the corresponding word in various modern languages does the samé, as in the case of garçon in many instances among the French, and of boy among the English West Indians. “Come, my boys,” “ now, my lads,” in like manner, are common expressions, used towards the private men in the land and sea service, both of the United States and of England.

Garçon has still a different sense among the French, as it stands for a bachelor, or unmarried male, whatever be his age. The very term, bachelor, also in English is not confined to time among adults ; though in its origin it signifies a student, who has only taken his first degree in an university ; that is, one crowned on that account with bays, or bacca laureatus. The term, maid, and in many cases that of maiden in English, applies alike either to young females, or to females of all ages, who are either unmarried, or appear as domestic servants.

The word enfant in French, as it originally respects infancy, offers a still more remarkable case in point, as it holds its application to very late periods of puberty on various occasions. Thus bon enfant signifies a good fellow, though the person, so called, is perhaps the father of children ; enfans perdus, though perhaps veterans, are the advanced party, or forlorn hope in a military assault ; enfant de Paris is a native of Paris ; and enfant de France is one of the immediate descendents of the reigning family in France.

Infante and infanta are appellations corresponding to that of enfant de France, but are used much more constantly to signify a Prince or Princess of the blood Royal, whatever be the age.

This postscript might be extended, were it designed for any other purpose, than that of mere illustration by means of a few familiar examples. Indeed the farther production of cxamples may seem still more unnecessary in consequence of the following remark. A long continuance of the appellations, indicating youth, may result either from patriarchal habits, oriental flattery, or the mode of viewing human life common to old men ; or from the slow change of ideas and phrases, once adopted towards individuals ; or from certain figures in our modes of speaking, or the use of familiar or endearing expressions. But on the other hand neither habit, nor interest, nor vanity, are likely to make many males or females fond of appearing old, before their time.

REMARKS ON MILTON'S PARADISE LOST.

UR. DRAKE in his Literary Hours, speaking of Milton's Paradise Lost, says “ his chief deficiences are in the

third and twelfth books, and his fable irivolves no close or " national interest. Nothing can well be more erroneous, “ than the opinion of Addison, when, speaking of the inter“est of the Iliad and Æneid, as arising from national subjects, “ he observes, ' Milton's poem is admirable in this respect, “ since it is impossible for any of its readers, whatever na« tion, country, or people he may belong to, not to be rela“ ted to the persons, who are the principal actors in it.' 'One “ should hardly have supposed,' remarks our Poet Laureát, * that Addison could have been ignorant of the obvious truth, " that every affection is exactly weakened in proportion to “ its becoming general.” The concluding idea in this extract is probably correct. But, though we grant this, and allow the principle all the force, which it really possesses, we may still maintain, that Milton's Paradise Lost' is in respect of its subject happily calculated to interest its readers. If the events, celebrated by Milton, were only on a footing in point of magnitude with the wars of Alexander, or Cæsar, the objection, here noticed to that poem, would possess considera ble weight ; not however in my apprehension even then so much, as may appear at first view. For the value, which a poem derives from the subject of it being a national one, is altogether extraneous, and therefore not necessarily permanent, or extensively perceived. The number indeed of those, who have read, and will read the Iliad and Æneid with any peculiar interest on account of their particular relation to the actors in them, is very inconsiderable, compared with the multitudes, who receive from this source no share of the please ure, offered them by those celebrated works. The preservation of them to the end of time must for the future rest entirely on their intrinsic merits. Why then should a writer, who aims at immortality, be so extremely solicitous to choose a subject, which, though it may excite a strong local and temporary interest, can at most recommend it to a comparatively small portion of mankind ?

But the subject of Milton's Paradise Lost is of a nature infinitely higher, than any national event, as the conquest of a country, or the founding of an empire. It is a subject, in which every individual of the human race is personally, and immediately, and deeply concerned. Must it cease to be interesting, because it embraces myriads ? Suppose a million of persons were doomed by an arbitrary tyrant to the torment of the rack, would the horror and pain of any individual be diminished by the idea, that his punishment was shared in common with so many others? Would his imagination be less active to terrify, or to contrive? Would his emotions be less poignant and bitter? And would the reception of a pardon fill him with less transport ? Would his situation in fine engage his thoughts, his feelings, his whole soul with less intenseness, than if he were the single victim of despotism? Now, if we believe in the scripture, we must admit that, in consequence of one man's disobedience to the divine injunctions, the state of every individual of the human race most miserably differs from the state of man, prior to that transaction; and that, without reference to the remedy, which has. been devised, for those only however, who comply with certain terms, repugnant to a thousand strong propensities in our present nature, his future prospects are rendered inexpressibly gloomy and distressing. Is not such an event in the highest degree interesting to mankind ? How it could have been pronounced, or even for a moment imagined otherwise by a believer in the bible, is to me astonishing. I should think the fall of man could not fail to take strong hold on the feelings of every person of sober reflexion on two accounts; first on account of each one's own immediate and deep concern in it, and secondly from the consideration, that all mankind are involved in its consequences. Shall we not then rather say that, if it is a felicity in an epic poem to be founded on a subject, generally interesting to its readers, Milton has in this respect as well, as in the execution of his grand work, been singularly happy ?

REMARKS ON THE PREFACE TO HERON'S

JUNIUS.

(Continued from page 286.]

I HE problem, who was Junius, has from the time of the first publication of his letters to the present moment been an enigma ; and the researches of insulted authority and of mortified pride have been unavailing Public admiration was attracted to the man, who had evinced a spirit, before unknown; and who, disclaiming the language of ordinary minds, had created for himself a style as unexampled in elegance and strength, as were his sentiments in asperity and sedition. The British ministry, in whose sides the arrows of his invective were still remaining, would have richly rewarded the spy, who could discover the retreat of the archer. Those, who were crowned with the eulogium of Junius, must have been anxious to recognize the bencfactor, who, when

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