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construction, appear to have been they never come, and which, therethe work of a later period than the fore, are the refuge of the cattle. above. The bishop represented the name of the insect is, in Arabic, them as having been the retreats of zomb; and Providence, it would Christians in the earliest ages. seem, from the beginning bad fixed

The following description of a its habitation to one species of soil, subterranean village may be found being a black fat earth ; extraordi. in Parson's Travels in Asia and Darily fruitful as it was, it seems, Africa, p. 38.

from the first, to have given a law At eleven we arrived on the plain, to the settlement of the country. It and a better road, but being exces- prohibited absolutely those inhabitsively hot, and seeing a village with ants of the fat earth, called mazaga, many low houses, or rather huts, domiciled in caves and mountains, we struck out of our path, and from enjoying the help or labour of arrived there about noon; when, any beasts of carriage. It deprived instead of houses, we found them to them of their flesh and milk for food, be caverns dug in the earth, and and gave rise to another nation vaulted, with only the upper rt whose manners were just the reverse appearing above ground. The peo- of the first. These were the shepple received us kindly; both men herds, leading a wandering life, and and horses descended into one of preserving their immense herds of the largest of them, and immediately cattle, by conducting them into the felt such a comfortable coolness as sands beyond the limits of the black was extremely delightful. The ca. earth, and bringing them back again vern which we were now in was when the danger from the insect more than one hundred feet in length was over. For as soon as this and near forty wide, entirely vaulted plague appears, and their buzzing the whole way, and very lofty; it is heard, all the cattle forsake their was divided into apartments on each food, and run wildly about the side, in some of which were grain, plain, till they die worn out with in others flour, in others oil, all in fatigue, hunger, and thirst. Shaw's very large jars, buried half-way in Zoology, vol. viii. p. 368. from the earth; in other divisions were Bruce's Travels, vol. i. p. 388. vol. roosts for poultry, in others cows v. p. 188. were kept, in some goats and sheep, În Etliiopia, above Egypt, near and some served as places to sleep to the river Asa, inhabit a people in; the middle part was kept clear called Rizophages, who, though lias a passage to each room, or divi- ving in plenty and constant peace sion,

with one another, yet are miserably Isaiah vii. 18, 19.

infested, and often fallen upon by “ And it shall come to pass in that day, the lions that abound in those parts. that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is for the air being scorching hot, in the uttermost part of the rivers of they come out of the desert into the Egypt. And they shall come, and shall country of the Rizophages, both for rest all of them in the desolate vallies, and shelter from the heat and to hunt in the holes of the rocks, and upon all the lesser beasts for prey: so that thorns, and upon all bushes."

wben the Ethiopians come out of By the expression of resting in the marshes they are torn in pieces the desolate vallies, &c. Mr. Bruce by these creatures. And the whole uzderstands the Prophet to mean, nation would certainly be utterly that they shall cut off from the cat. destroyed, if Providence had not tle their usual retreat to the desert, provided a remedy in this case : by taking possession of those places, for about the beginning of the dog and meeting them where ordinarily days, when there is not the least

wind, there comes forth such a mul- their biting and stinging, and partly titude of goats, larger than those terrified with their humming and that are commonly seen, that the buzzing, run far away out of the inhabitants are forced to fly into country. Diod. Sic. b. 3. c. 2. the marshes, and so avoid them; p. 94. and the lions, partly tormented by


one occasion he bitterly regrets his RENARKS ON THE LIFE OF

pride, and selfishness, and party spiBRAINERD.

rit in times past, while he attempted to David Brainerd was sent, A.D. promote the cause of God, and says 1745, by the Scotch Society for he saw his desert of hell


this propagating Christian Knowledge, account; a reflection which may be as à Missionary to convert the In- recommended to some of the condians of New Jersey and Pennsylva- troversial writers of his party. On nia; he was a rigid Calvinist, and another occasion he heard some his Memoirs were published by men talking freely about secular Jonathan Edwards, President of the affairs on a Sunday, and his remark College there, and the great cham- is, “Oh I thought what a hell it pion of Calvinism: the only doctrine, would be to live with such men to however, of that school conspicuous eternity." His journal very much in this work, is the incorrigible de. resembles Wesley's, especially in the pravity of human nature, and the effects he attributes to his discourses, atter exclusion of all hope of Salva- and in belief of a special Providence, tion, except by the mere influences sometimes interposing in his behalf. of grace; these opinions tincture his As Wesley intimates that he was whole life with their sombre colour- once miraculously protected from a ing, and added to a temperament shower of rain, when he was preachsingularly melancholic produce such ing in the open air, so Brainerd an agitation of inind as may well seems to have imagined, that three suggest a suspicion of mania. In deer were brought by the hand of his private journal, where the sen God to be shot by his Indians, that sations of almost every day are mi- they might not be dispersed in quest nutely recorded, he speaks continu- of food, and lose the benefit of his ally of the desperate wickedness of instructions. The superstitious tenhis heart, the distressing sense of dency of his mind cannot well be his unspeakable depravity, his ex doubted, when speaking of some ceeding vileness, sinfulness, impurity Indian conjurors, he says, " he sat at and corruption : who would guess the distance of about 30 feet from from these confessions, that he was them, undiscovered, with his Bible a man of most exemplary life and in his hand, resolving if possible, to extraordinary piety? but it was un spoil their sport, and prevent their fortunately part of his religion to receiving any answers from the inuse the slang terms of Calvin's fernal world” p. 349. The influSchool, and therefore the reader is ence of an invisible and supernatural tired to death with his experiences power was indeed so familiar to his and convictions of sin and wrestlings thoughts, and the persuasion of it in prayer; the singular and some so continually predominant in his times amiable tenderness of his con- mind, that in every incident he was science is frequently exemplified; on apt to discover some mysterious

agency, just as a coward in the dark the shock of this surprising operaapprehends danger in every object. tion. Old men and women, who The influence of the Holy Spirit, had been drunken wretches for slowly as it developes its eharacter many years, and some little children to less sanguine eyes, was repeatedly not more than six or seven years of visible to his optics, in the instan- age, appeared in distress about their taneous effects it produced upon the souls, as well as persons of middle nerves of his auditors: it must be age; and it was apparent that these confessed, however, it is the more children, some of them at least, necessary to look for some super were not merely frighted with seeing natural cause of the tears, and sobs, the general concern, but were made and groans, which are plentifully sensible of their danger, the badness sprinkled up and down his journal, of their hearts, and their misery since no natural cause can well be without Christ.” Io one instance, assigned; there was no room for he seems himself a good deal surany pathetic appeals to the heart, prised, and unable to account for or impassioned bursts of eloquence the emotions of his converts, excited in his preaching; there could be no as they were without any adequate working upon the passions or ex or rational cause; but the influence citement of the feelings; for every of the Spirit is a salvo for every sentence he uttered, every doctrine thing: Deus ecce Deus. p. 335. he propounded, was to be translated “While I was conversing, near night, into the Indian tongue, by a man with two or three of the awakened who scarcely understood the sub- persons, a divine influence seemed ject, and whose errors could not be to attend what was spoken to them, corrected. The facts may be true, in a powerful manner; they cried at least in part; for the narrator out in anguish of soul, although I was unquestionably a couscientious spake not a word of terror; but on man; but the explanation is pro- the contrary, set before them the bably to be found in that direction fulness, and all-sufficiency of Christ's of Horace, Si vis me flere, dolendum merits, and his willingness to save est primum ipsi tibi, to see any one all that come to him : their cry was in great distress of mind, is suffi- soon heard by others, who, though cient to draw tears from the tender- scattered before, immediately ga. hearted ; at all events it is plaiu that thered round; I then proceeded in he deceived himself, and though the the same strain of Gospel invitation, observations of a good man's mind till they were all melted into tears are not fit subjects for ridicule, yet and cries, except two or three, and it is impossible not to smile at the seemed in the greatest distress to seriousness, with which he transfers secure an interest in the great Rehis own deep convictions and deemer.” His was the persuasion, mournings, to infants not more than common to that sect, that without a six or seven years old. “I stood total change of heart operated sponamazed," says he, p. 332. “at the taneously by the immediate power influence which seized the audience of God, without any reference to almost universally, and could com human agency, or the will of the pare it to nothing more aptly, than recipient, no one can be a true the irresistible force of a mighty Christian; and also, that sensible torrent or swelling deluge, that with notices of that change are impressed its insupportable weight and pres- upon the feelings of each convert: sure, bears down and sweeps before but Mr. Brainerd's eagerness carried it, whatever is in its way. Almost him a step farther, and being at a all persons, of all ages, were bowed loss how to reason upon a subject, down with concern together, and from which reason was excluded, scarcely one was able to withstaud he assumed, as nine out of ten in

that party usually do, that conver- standing what he meant. A mode. sion might be inferred, when certain rate Calvinist is as rare an animal symptoms were remarked, and cer- as a black swan: intensity of feeling táis phrases used, describing those is with them a constitutional ailinward intimations, and expressivement; they are usually characterised of spiritual renovation, such as by extreme excitability of the affec" concern for the soul;" “ distress tions, and therefore it is the less under convictions;" “inward trials;" wonderful, that they lay so much "exercises in faith ;" “ sweet relish stress upon symptoms of religion, of religion;" "longing after Christ;" and emotions of the heart; but the with a suitable proportion of Ohs. precipitancy of judgment into which As tbis is a phraseology soon learnt, this temperament leads them is a it is an easy substitute for piety, serious evil, which is most stri. and as it has no association with kingly exemplified in their opinions the understanding, the worthy mis- concerning human nature and grace: sionary was easily imposed upon, doubtless there are different meaand was not at all surprised to find sures of holiness belonging to difthe grace of God operating its won. ferent orders of beings in the uniders in infants, fools, and drivellers, verse; different gradations of natural for enthusiasm blinds the eyes of obedience to the great Creator of common sense, and leads it into the all, varying from absolute goodness most palpable contradictions; of in the best, down to irreclaimable this we have an eminent proof in perverseness in the worst: in this his remarks upon the work of grace scale Calvinists place regenerated among the Indians: be speaks with men too high, and the unregenerate great satisfaction of one woman, they depress too low; the first they who “ though she was become so exalt into angels, the second they childish through old age, that I equalise with devils; overlooking could do nothing in way of ques. the actual condition of human nationing with her, nor scarce make ture, they take for granted they her understand what I asked her, shall find it literally delineated in yet when I let her alone to go ou certain texts of Scripture, and then with her own story, she could give identifying their hypothesis with the a very distinct and particular rela: Word of God, they are satisfied tion of the various exercises of soul that it is infallible, and consider it a she had experienced in the preced- part of their religion to resist all ing six months, so deep were the proof drawn from an induction of impressions left upon her mind, by particulars, which militates against the influence she had been under; their dogmas. Accordingly, they I have great reason to hope, she is will not agree to the conclusion, born again in her old age, now up. which sacred and profane records warris of fourscore.” P.416. most obviously point out, that man

The Turks venerate ideots, as is only “very far gone from original acting under the immediate inspira- righteousness :" nothing less will tion of the Deity, and we deride content them, but that he must be their foolish superstition : I am loth a loathsome mass of corruption, and to compare the missionary to the that the best good he can possibly Turk; but surely we may use the do deserves hell and eternal damlanguage of St. Paul, and say, that nation; revolting as this doctrine is, he was like the Athenians, duosdan and repugnant to all our notions of Hovéstpos, when he could distinguish virtue, it is much more so when the Holy Spirit, exercising his vital taken in connection with the test, energies in a childish old woman, by which regeneration is to be incapable of answering her instruc. tried ; let not the hapless Arminian tor's questions, and scarcely under flatter himself, that he can be saved

by the best exertions to do his duty, woman could have understood hell if they proceed from motives, which to mean a place of eternal punishhe, poor man, has been accustomed ment and torment. Another Indian, to consider as good, the fear of God, who had been a conjuror, being unthe hope of Glory, nay even the der a deep conviction of sin, was satisfaction of gratitude will be “ brought to the utmost agony of unavailing to his salvation: these soul,” but by and bye, he became motives have no spark of goodness perfectly sedate, and enjoyed great in them; bis obedience is mere self- calmness, and composure of mind; isbness ; (Vide Scott on Assurance.) not, however, because he was comGenuine holiness is more noble, and forted by the promises of mercy in spiritual, and abstracted : unless the Gospel, but, because he was si the love of Christ constrains” him satisfied, “ it was quite right that to act on higher motives, his elec- he should go to hell,” and that he tion is not sure; he must in the full

expected to be damned for the est latitude of the phrase," put off greatness of his sins.” In this case the old man,” divest himself of his the Missionary himself seems al. human nature, renounce all personal most to have suspected the delufeelings, and


up in the sion; for he adds—" yet it was will of God; and as God is sup- plain he had a secret hope of mercy, posed to work solely for his own glo- though imperceptible to himself, rification, so no one can be restored which kept him not only from deto his likeness, whose views, wishes, spair, but from any pressing disand desires centre not in that one tress ; so that instead of being sad point, of exalting his honour and and dejected, his countenance ap- , magnifying bis glory. A remarka- peared pleasant and agreeable." ble instance, how far this delusion P. 410. may be carried, occurs in Brainerd's The Calvinistic principle, howaccount of “ Divine grace displayed ever, of a perfection abstracted from among the Indians :' a woman, who self, by conformity to the will of had never before obtained any set. God, was most explicitly avowed tled comfort, experienced a saving by himself in his last illness : "he change; she now appeared in a spoke of it as an ignoble, mean heavenly frame of wind, composed, kind of willingness to die, to be and delighted with the Divine will: willing to go to heaven, only to get her experience she expresses thus— honour, and advancement there." “I tried, and tried to save myself, till My heaven," said he, “ is to at last my strength was all gone, please God and glorify him, to be and I could not stir any further; wholly devoted to his glory; that is then at last I was forced to let Jesus my religion, and always was, ever Christ alone, to send me to hell if since I suppose I had any true re. he pleased; then I thought my heart ligion; and all those that are of that would be glad, although Christ religion shall meet me in heaven. I should send me to hell. I did not do not go to beaven to be advanced, care where he put me; I should but to give honour to God." P. love him for all that." The 241. “ truth,” observes the Missionary, It is undoubtedly the duty of

evidently was, her will was every Christian, to aim at the high. swallowed up in the Divine will, est possible perfection in his own that she could not frame any hell in individual conduct; but it is a danher imagination, that would be gerous ambition in a public teacher, dreadful or undesirable, provided it to meddle with the foundations of was but the will of God to send her duty, to distil the word of God in to it." P. 373.

the alembic of bis own fervid imagiIt is almost incredible, that this nation, and refine the terms of sal


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