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BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATIONS,

( Continued.) Exod. xxxv. 85.

Upheard, unseen, three years her arts pre

vail; " And all the women that were wise. The fourth, her maid unfolds th’amazing headed did spin with their hands, &c."

tale. Prov. xxxi. 10, 11. 13. 15. 19.

We saw, as uuperceiv'd we took our stand,

The backward labours of her faithless hand. " Who can fipd a virtuous woman for Then urged, slie perfects her illastrious her price is far above rubies. The heart of

toils, her husband doth safely trust in her. She

A wondrous monument of female wiles. seeketh wool and fax, and worketh wil.

Odyssey, B. 2. L. 101.....117. lingly with her hands. She riseth also,

Ecclesiastes x. 1. while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and a portion to her maid. Dead flies cause the ointment of the ens. She layeth her hands to the spindle, Apothecary to send forth a king sa and her hands bold the distaff.”

vour." LET our virgin daughter, who is It is clear from this verse, that a now marriageable, begin the weav- preparation of dead flies in the coming part along with the maids, that position of ointments was in use in when carried home to her husband the time of Solomon. The Ay in she may not disgrace us her pa. most frequent use is the Meloe Vesrents. Besides, you ought to know cicatorius. It is, however, supposed that they who love spioning, and the that the insect used by the ancients, business of the loom, are distin- and which is still constantly used by guished by their chaste and modest the Chinese for blisters is the Meloe conduct.Alciphon's Epistles, B. 3. Cichorei of Linnæus. Hasselquist Let. 41.

mentions it as one of the insects met

with in the Levant. As a further Full fifty bandmaids form the honsehold confirmation of the above text, it is

train, Some turn the mill, or sift the golden grain; worthy of observation that many of Some ply the loom; their busy fingers move

the insects of this genus bave a Like poplar leaves when Zephyr fans the power of exuding an oily liquid of a grove.

strong and often fætid smell. Not more renown'd the men of Scheiras isle,

Genesis XXX, 14. For sailing arts, and all the naval toil,

“ And Reuben went in the days of Than works of female skill, their women's pride,

the wheat harvest; and found mandrakes The flying shuttle thro' the threads to

in the field, and brought them unto bis

mother Leah," guide: Pallas to these her double gifts imparts,

Solomon's Song vii. 13. Joventive genius, and industrious arts.

Odyssey, B.7. L. 132. “ The mandrakes give a smell." Did not the Sun, thro' heav'n's wide azure rollid,

Concerning this plant of which so For three long years the royal fraud behold? many fabulous tales have been cirWhile she, laborions in delusiou spread culated, it may not be uninteresting The spacious loom, and mix'd the various to give Marítis's Account, Vol. 3. p. thread:

146, of his travels. The work she ply'd : bnt studious of delay,

He found them in May, which By night revers'd the labours of the day. While thrice, the Sun his annual journey

was the season of wheat harvest in made,

Palestine, and the reader who conThe .conscious lamp the midnight fraud

sults his work will find a singular survey'd,

coincidence between the opinions of

1

the earliest ages as inferred from except that they are of a dark green Genesis and of the modern Arabs colour. The flowers are purple, respecting certain qualities ascribed and the root is for the most part to them.

forked. “ At the distance of a mile from Various fables are related of the the village of St. Jobo we found mandragora, some of which are still among the hills, a great many plants common in the Levant, but as they of the mandragora or mandrake, are unworthy of notice, I shall only which the Arabs call jabrohak. The observe, that I was told in Palestine, greater part of them were covered that some people endeavouring to with ripe fruit, which were of the dig up this plant from the earth, size and colour of a small apple; were affected by so powerful a they were exceedingly ruddy, and smell, that their heads became quite had a most agreeable odour. One giddy. In Cyprus, I have often, in of our Arabs thought to pay us a company with various friends, pulled particular compliment by dismouut- up this plant, but I was never sening from bis horse, and collecting sible of any such smell, nor expeseveral of these fruits, which he rienced the least disorder in my presented to us in order that we head. I must here add, that in all might eat them. We Europeans, my travels, I never saw this plant however, did not find ourselves dis- with fruit on it, except in the neighposed to receive bis favor, as we bourhood of the village of St. John. apprehended that they might have In Cyprus, where it abounds, I have some narcotic quality, and be on every year seen it in flower, but that account prejudicial to the never bearing fruit. health. Our interpreters told us In the country of the Pawnawnees, that the Arabs are remarkably fond a pation inhabiting some branches of them, because they find their of the Messorie river, it is said that spirits elevated after they eat them; mandrakes are frequently found, a but I have often remarked, that their species of root resembling human joy was for the most part succeeded beings of both sexes; and that these by a deep melancholy. This plant are more perfect than such as are is known also in Tuscany, and par- discovered about the Nile in Nether ticularly in the Alps of Pistora. It Ethiopia.-Cawer's travels in North grows in a low form like lettuce, to America, vol. i. p. 118. which its leaves have a resemblance,

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ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.

SKETCHES OF THE ECCLESIAS. the scholars, and the lessons were
TICAL HISTORY OF GREAT all so completely different, that jus.
BRITAIN.

tice cannot be done to any one of

the three without adverting to the No. VI.

circumstances by which they are The Schools of learning which remarkably distinguished. were instituted by Anglo-Saxon The missionaries who first preached Prelates in the seventh century, Christianity to the Saxons, were not will be tried by a very unfair test, if acquainted with the literature of we compare them either with the the Augustan age ; but lived at a academies of Greece and Rome, or time when every thing that was with the colleges and universities of purely Roman, had been corrupted modern Europe. The teachers, and by repeated mixtures with the

Gothic invaders. Pope Gregory, were masters of the corrupted Latin the immediate patroo and encou. which was recommended to them, rager of Austin, was no friend to they used it in perusing a library, classical learning, nor did he even which with the single exception of adhere' to the more imperfect mo. the bible, was as ill calculated as dels of the early Christian Fathers. possible to serve the cause of learnAs a sacred critic, be loved nothing ing and letters. The grammarians so much as allegories : his eloquence of the later ages of Rome, the consisted of forced conceits, and his lawyers, and Church historians, character as a scholar as well as a and canonists, and commentators, Prelate, is not badly sketched by were the writers with whom the Foxe, who declares bim to be as more eminent endeavoured to beinferior to those who went before, come familiar; and to transcribe as he was superior to most who the opinions of earlier times, to followed him. The first circum- extract and methodise the sentiments stance therefore to be noted in the of St Augustin or some other father, Anglo-Saxon schools, is, that their was the height of critical ambition. founders and teachers were falling If these facts are steadily borne in rapidly into a state of barbarism mind, the reader will easily estimate and ignorance: their taste was vi- the real progress of learning among cious, their general knowledge was our Saxon fathers; and understand of the most confined and superficial ing why its amount was so inconsi. character, and their reasoning derable, and so fruitless, he will not powers were either totally neglected, subscribe on the one hand to the or exerted after an absurd fashion opinions of the Romanist, or the upon absurdities and trifles.

Antiquarian who would persuade us The scholars were not placed in that the seventh century was dis. a more favourable situation; they tinguished by the number of its had every thing to learn. The very philosophers and scholars. Nor language in which the lessons of the on the other hand, will he be permissionary were conveyed, was un- suaded that the monks have no known to the pupils whom he came claim to our regard; or that in cito teach. The habits and manners vilizing and instructing the barba. of the country were rude and unci- rous inbabitants of this island, they vilized. The laws were simple, and performed an easy or unimportant depended in great measure upon task. The subject however will be the will and power of the ruler. discussed, and comprehended with War was the great business of men more facility after some notice bas of rank and condition; and literature been taken of the principal scholars was only resorted to for the purpose of the time. of recording the valour of heroes, Theodore, Archbishop of Canterand stimulating their descendants to bury, is entitled to the first place, emulate or surpass them. The in. He was a native of Tarsus in Cili. habitants of such a nation cannot cia, and was consecrated at Rome, have been well prepared for the by Pope Vitalian, in the year of our reception of learning and science, Lord 668. Egbert, king of Kent and it is a natter of some surprise bad sent Wigard to Rome to receive that they studied or profited at all. ordination. But Wigard died of the The first thing they had to learn, plague which raged

at that time in ás has already been observed, was the city, and the Pope seized the language ; and a language so en- opportunity of appointing Theodore tirely different from their vernacular to the vacant see. Not secure howtongue, that much pains must have ever of the orthodoxy, or perhaps been bestowed upon the acquisition the obedience of one who was born of it. And when the Saxon youths and bred in Greece, Vitalian or

se

dered Adrian, a Romau monk to ac- or from divorcing her for any cause company Theodore into England, except adultery; and that no bisbop and to take care that he introduced shonld claim individual superiority no practices into the Saxon Church over his brethren, but all be con.. wbich were at variance with the tent to rank according to the date Latio rules.

of their consecrations. The Tlie first present which the new cond Synod was principally occuPrimate conferred upon the country pied with the subject of the Trinity, was a copious and splendid library respecting which new heresies were of books, in the Greek and Latin now springing up in the East. The languages. Parker especially men- Saxons, under the direction of Theotions a Homer which he considered dore, professed their faith in the as still extant, and which was more

Catholic doctrine, as it is now rebeautiful than the best printed ceived, and adopted the confessions editions of bis day. The works and resolutions of the five general of Chrysostom and Josephus are councils of Nice, Constantinople, spoken of in the same terms. Theo- Ephesus, Clialcedon, and Constan. dore is also believed to have found. tinople the Second. And the acts ed a school at Cricklade in Wilt- of this Synod were immediately shire, where Greek was first taught transmitted to`Rome, by John, to the Saxons; and from which Abbot of St. Martin's, and Precentor place, in a subsequent age, Oxford of St. Peter's. This John was the received its original students. But most celebrated church musician of what is more certain is, that the bis age, and it is from his arrival fame of Theodore's great learning that we may date the introduction procured him the acknowledged pri. of the Latin Cathedral service into macy of all England, an honour England. Much importance was which none of his predecessors in then attached to the art of singing the see of Canterbury had actually or chaunting, and John and the puenjoyed-and so far was he from pils whom he instructed, are always forgetting his obligations and alle- mentioned with the greatest respect giance to the Pope, that he intro- by Bede and other early writers. duced the Latin form of worship

Theodore died in the year 690, into all the churches and monas- and expressed his sincere contrition teries, and even proceeded to depose for the harshness with which he had several of his suffragan bishops treated Wilfrid and other bishops. upon a charge of being uncanoni- His principal work was The Peni. cally consecrated.

tential, the idea of which he bor. An undertaking more to his own -rowed from the Greek writers, and credit, and to the advantage of the was the first to introduce into the Church of England, was the assem- West of Europe. He has since had bly of two general Synods, the one many imitators. He drew up like. at Hertford, and the other at Cliff, wise some extracts from the Canons near Rochester, At the first the and other ecclesiastical writings ; bishops and clergy pledged them- and whatever may be thought of the selves generally to celebrate Easter extent of his learning, or his genius, according to the Roman cycle, to ob- it must be admitted that in bis perserve the ancient canons of the son the Pope had the honour of Church, to confine themselves each sending us our first instructor in to his own peculiar district, to re

ancient literature, as he had prespect the rights and property of viously in the person of Austio sent monasteries, to take measures for in. our first teacher of Christianity. creasing the number of bishops and The success in both cases may have clergy, to prohibit their converts been inconsiderable, but the primary from marrying more than one wife, difficulty was overcome, and the foun. REMEMBRANCER, No. 42.

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dation was solidly and securely strusis ex Græco petitis delectenlaid.

tur. Moderatius tamen se agit Ald. The next in rank to Theodore helmus nec nisi perraro et necessaamong the early English sages was rio verba ponit exotica. Allegat caAldhelm, a Saxon of noble birth, tholicos sensus sermo facundus, viowho was committed in his youth to leutissimas assertiones exornat color the care of Adrian, and made an ex- rhetoricus. Quem si perfecte legeris traordinary proficiency in the learn- et ex acumine Græcum putabis, et ing of those days. He studied phi- ex vitore Romanum jurabis et ex losophy in the monastery of Meldun ponpå Anglum intelliges."

The (afterwards Malmesbury, which had charge of speaking pompatically is been recently founded by a Scotch- fully borne out by the quotations man named Meildun, and his ta- with which Malmesbury has furnished lents were duly estimated both by us—but when we remember the situhis countrymen and by foreigners. ation of the Saxons before the coming William of Malmesbury tells us that of Austin, there is more reason to Aldhelm was a good writer and a wonder that Aldhelm could write at poet in his native tongue, that the all, than that his erudition was not common people were delighted and adorned by simplicity and good taste. improved by his recitations, and He died in the year 709, having that at the same time, he was re- been Abbott of Malmesbury for spectfully consulted by the more thirty-four years, and Bishop of eminent scholars of other countries; Sherborne or Salisbury for five. It especially Arcivilus, a Scotch prince, is reported that he was consecrated who submitted his compositions to at Rome; and that he took that opAldhelm, ut perfecti ingenii limå portunity of remonstrating with the eraderetur scabredo Scotica. He Pope upon his luxurious manner of was a great master of the Roman living. law; and excelled also in Grammar, The last and the greatest of the astronomy, music, and metre. He worthies now to be mentioned is wrote a defence of the Roman mode Bede, whose Ecclesiastical History of celebrating Easter; and three is the most precious relic that has books, one in prose, and two in descended from his time to ours, and verse De virginitatis laude. There whose character appears to have been are extant also, says Malmesbury, a as blameless as any upon

record. thousand verses of his de enigma. He was born in 672, near the tibus, divided into ten chapters: the mouth of the river Tine; was edu. first and last letters of the preface cated in the monastery of St. Peter, to each chapter forming this verse : at Weremouth; and is not known to Aldhelmus cecinit millenis versibus have travelled beyond the precincts odas. He also composed treatises upon of that immediate neighbourhood. the number seven, upon brotherly His life, therefore, is particularly love, and upon various grammatical barren of incidents; but the careful and poetical niceties. Malmesbury observer of past events will find amgives the following curious account ple food for curiosity and speculaof his style. “Sermones ejus minus tion in remembering that in that obinfundunt hilaritatis quam vellent ii corner of the world, Bede qui rerum incuriosi verba trutinant; made himself master of all the learnjudices importuni qui nesciant quod ing of Greece and Rome, became insecundum mores gentium varientur timately acquainted with the Fathers modi dictaminum. Demque Græci of the Church, and an adept in the involute, Romani splendide, Angli most abstruse sciences, while at the pompatice dictare solent. Id in om- same time he set his contemporaries nibus antiquis cartis, est animadver- an example of umblemished purity tere, quantum quibusdam verbis ab. and piety, and composed little less

scure

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