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contrary, he had not seditiously cree in the most insolent manner, withstood the power by which he and even proceeded so far as to was oppressed, but had humbly ap- say that it had been obtained by pealed to the Pope-to the authority bribery. Wilfrid was thrown into of whose Apostleship it properly prison by the king, with the consent belonged to determine this question. and approbation of the bishops in Wilfrid himself was then admitted, possession of his diocese. The and presented a petition which tal. monarch and bis courtiers did not lies most suspiciously with the pre- conceal their indignation : the friends ceding speech. He dwells upou bis of the prisoner were refused all uncanonical deposition : states that access to him; the queen plundered Theodore and other bishops invaded him of his reliques, be was loaded his See, and intruded into it three with chains, and placed for nine bishops, not canonically promoted : months in solitary confinement. At that he made no tumultuous resist. last the queen fell ill, and an abbess ance or opposition, but repaired at having persuaded the king that her once to the Apostolic See-that he sickness was sent as a punishment was now ready to submit, with all for the ill treatment of Wilfrid, he humility, to its decision, hoping that was set at liberty, and departed into it would perceive that he had been Mercia. Here Berthwald, King unjustly deprived – but at the same Ethelred's nephew, offered him an time willing to consent to a division asylum ; and a monastery was foundof his diocese, if the present bishops ed forthwith. But the king was in were expelled and others regularly alliance with Ecgfrid, and insisted appointed in their stead. This pe- upon the immediate departure of tition was most favourably received, the banished bishop. He repaired and Wilfrid was especially commen- therefore to the West-Saxons; but ded by the Pope for seeking the hence also he was speedily driven canonical assistance of the succes. by the power and interest of his sor of St. Peter. The Synod re- enemies, and the territory of the solved aud decreed that Wilfrid should be restored to his bishoprick; * Nr. Lingard, Anglo-Saron Church, but that his diocese should be divi. p. 438, gives a most uncandid account of ded into three parts, and two new this affair: omitting the first part of Ed. bishops regularly elected and con. dius's sentence, and asserting that the only secrated for the service of the parts ground of objection to the papal decree so divided to the exclusion of those
was that "it had been purchased by mowho had been instituted during Wil- king offered Wilfrid a part of his diocese,
." Eddius subsequently stales that the frid's absence. The oppuguers “ si jussionibus et censuris ejus acquiesthis decree, were, if of episcopal or cere voluisset, et statuta canonica quæ ab priestly rank to be deprived, if lay- Apostolica sede missa sunt eligeret denemeu, or even kings, to be prohibited gare vera esset.” Mr. L. quotes the last from partaking of the Sacrament of clause of this sentence to convict Carte of the Lord's Supper.
falsehood, in saying that “the king offered
Wilfrid a part of his diocese if he would Wilfrid returned to England in
renounce the authority of the papal mantriumph, taking with him a fresh date," and declares the real condition to supply of reliques-carrying the be “ if he would acknowledge the papal decree as the symbol of bis victory, mandate to be a forgery.” This may be and shewing it to Eegfrid, king of the meaning of the word vera, although it Northumberland, to the princes, and is irreconcileable with the preceding and to all the clergy of tlie neighbour was the sole condition, is an act of gross
subseqnent history. But to say that it hood in synod assembled. The unfairness ; and Mr. Lingard's History is contents being disagreeable to some distigured by many similar impositions of the party, they rejected the de. upon his readers or upou himself,
South.Saxons, over which Ecgfrid's restored to him the Monastery and influence did not extend, was the endowments of Hexham. Subse. first place in which he found per- quently he also gave him the bishopmanent shelter. Ethelwald, king of rick of York, and Monastery of Rithe country, together with his court pon : and Wilfrid, after so great a and all his subjects, were still hea- variety of fortune, was placed for thens, and Wilfrid's character rises a brief space in his original See. in our esteem when we find him a se- But there was nothing stable or cond time preaching the Gospel to ido. stationary in the life of this extralaters, and converting them, in great ordinary man. He soon began to numbers, to the truth. The Monas. disagree with King Alfred, and after tery of Selsey was founded by Ethel- several quarrels and reconciliations wald, under the direction of his 'the Bishop was once more banished spiritual guide, and endowed with from the Northumbrian territory. the munificence which characterised Mercia, as on former occasions, of
Shortly after, Wilfrid's fered him a place of refuge, and the advice and assistance were requested bishoprick of Leicester having beby Cedwal, who claimed and ob- come vacant by the death of Sextained the West-Saxon throne, and wulfus, Ethelred conferred it upon did not fail to reward the Prelate the fugitive, with many tokens of who had befriended him during his regard. In a short time however troubles. The royal gratitude was Alfred, with Berthwald, the new declared by the appointment of Archbishop of Canterbury, assenWilfrid to the office of counsellor, bled a Synod at Onestrefield, or and gifts without end or number Osterfield, consisting of nearly all were bestowed upon him. While the English Bishops, and summoned things were in this situation, Theo. Wilfred to appear. They charged dore, Archbishop of Canterbury, him with having disobeyed Theofound his life drawing to a close, dore's Canons respecting the suband expressed a wish to be recon- division of the diocese of York, ciled to Wilfrid, and to appoint him and he answered by reproaching his successor in the primacy. The them with their disobedience to the latter freely accepted the offer of Pope, and asking how they could friendship, and availed himself of presume to prefer the Canons of Theodore's good offices in the re- Theodore to the solemn judgment covery of his lost preferment, but of the Court of Rome, especially with a degree of prudence and mode- as the former had made these Canons ration which he had never before at a time of alienation and discord. exhibited, postponed the consider. The Bishops pressed him to declare ation of the archbishop's successor his readiness to abide by their deci. to a future opportunity.
sion; but this he refused, pretendEcgfrid, king of Northumberland, ing that it was merely a snare, and had fallen in a battle against the that he must insert a salvo for the Picts, and to Alfred, his successor, antient canons, and the authority of and to Ethelred, king of Mercia, the Pope. This conduct had nearly Theodore now addressed letters in called down upon him a sentence of recommendation of Wilfrid's claim complete deprivation ; but it was and character. They were attended determined at the instance of the with complete though not immediate King and the Archbishop, that Risuccess. Ethelred complied en- pon should be allowed him for his tirely with Theodore's request, abode and maintenance, on condiadmitted Wilfrid into his territory, tion that he should promise to reand bestowed upou him several main there in tranquillity, to disMonasteries. Alfred likewise in- charge no part of his sacred funci vited him into Northumberland, and tions, and to resign his episcopa
rank. This proposal was received of the Pope's request Pope John with indignation and disdain. Wile acquitted Wilfrid, and dispatched fred exclaimed, “ I have been forty an epistle to the kings of Northumyears a Bishop, I brought back this berland and Mercia, commending country from the Scotch mode of their faith, and desiring them to observing Easter, I taught your assist him in terminating the dissenmonks to shave their heads in the sion in the English Church by sbew. circular form, I introduced the ing themselves maintainers rather primitive custom of chaunting with than despisers of the Pontifical deresponses from alternate bands;
He relates the first appeal and I was the first to regulate the under Agatho, to which he asserts monastic life by the rule of the holy that Archbishop Theodore was obeSt. Benedict; and shall I now pro- dient: and adds that he has admo. nounce a false sentence of condem- nished Berthwald to hold a Synod, nation against myself? I appeal to in company with Wilfrid, in which the Apostolic See, and let him who the partition of the diocese of York would degrade me accompany me is if possible to be amicably settled; thither to my trial.”
but if the parties cannot agree they This speech would have cost him are to refer the matter again to his life, if the Bishops had not re- Rome. He concludes by denouncminded the King that he came to ing every description of evil against the assembly with a safe conduct. those who are disobedient to his Reproaching him therefore for pre- commands. ferring the opinion of the Romans to In spite of this success Wilfrid that of his countrymen, they suffered was unwilling to return home, and him to return nuhurt to the court would gladly have passed the reof King Ethelred. Thence he soon mainder of his life at Rome, But departed for Rome, accompanied the Pope was well aware of the with messengers from the Mercian value of his services, and required King. Berthwald also dispatched him to follow up his appeal, by carambassadors to the same quarter, rying the sentence back to Britain. praying that the Pope would hear his Upon Berthwald, Archbishop of accusation against Wilfrid. There Canterbury, and Ethelred, King of appears to have been something Mercia, the Papal thunders promore uearly resembling a trial upon duced the desired effect, and they the present than upon the first ap promised to pay implicit obedience peal. But the argument on Wil- to the commands of the Apostolic frid's side was precisely the same as See. But Alfred, King of Norbefore, viz. that he was ready to thumberland, who was the person submit without murnuring to the chiefly concerned, for Wilfrid's dioApostolic decree; and that he bad
cese was in his dominions, and Wilonly refused to obey his national frid himself was his subject, received synod and national metropolitan on the Bishops' messengers with great the points in which they differed respect, and answered to the followfrom the Canons and the Popes. He ing effect. “ Ask favours for yourprayed in the first place that the selves, and I will readily grant them. original decree of Agatho might be But let me never hear another word renewed, and that John, the reign. respecting Wilfrid. His cause was ing Pope, would intercede with Al- decided by the Kings, my predecesfred to carry it into effect. But if this should be thought too much, he
* The words of Eddins requested that the monasteries of Alfridum, &c. tranquillissimis monitis
are, ut Regem Hexham and Rippon might at least obsecretis ," and again, “ per vestræ petibe restored to him by the assistance tionis aucilium."
sors, and the Archbishop and their ceses with their Abbotts, the Archcounsellors; and that decision has bishop of Canterbury with all his been confirmed by inyself, with the Suffragans, and Wilfrid. The Priconsent of an Archbishop, approved mate read and explained the Papal of by the Apostolic See, and of mandates, but the Bishops shewed nearly all-the Bishops of Britain ; no disposition to obey them. They nor will I ever consent to reverse repeated the unanswerable
arguthe judgment in deference to your ment of King Altred, that the deciletters from Rome*.” These words siou of doinestic synods and domesfurnish a complete proof of the in- tic princes ought not to be set aside dependence of the English Church; by a foreign authority. The Abbess and the spirit by which they were Elfleda, King Alfred's daughter, dictated seemed sufficient to secure was alone prepared with a replyit : but shortly after bis dismissal She affirmed : that Alfred had of Wilfrid's messengers, the stoute repented on his death-bed of his hearted King Alfred died. His suc. contempt for the Pope, and had cessor commenced his reign by re- charged his heir, in the most solemn newing the sentence against Wilfrid, manner, to reverse the sentence but that reign continued only two against Wilfrid. Berechtfrid, the months the new king was expelled nearest of kin to young Osred, and from the throne which he had the regent of his kingdom, credited usurped, and the crown descended this statement, and commanded the to Osred, the son of Alfred, who Assembly to come to terms with was only eight years of age, and Wilfrid. They agreed that he should under the immediate guardianship retain the monasteries of Hexham of Wilfrid. A tempting opportunity and Ripon, with all the property was thus afforded for reconsidering attached to them; and on this the Appeal to Rome. A Synod mutual understanding, peace was was held in the neighbourhood of finally concluded: Wilfrid residing the river Nidd, at which were pre- partly at Ripon and partly with his sent the young king and his court, old and most intimate friends the three Bishops of the Northern Dio. Mercians. He died in the pos
session of enormous wealth, and *" () Fratres mei ambo venerabiles, was
buried with characteristic petite a me vobismet ipsis necessaria et pomp at Ripon. ego propter reverentiam vestram donabo Such is the history of the first vubis. De causa vero Wilfridi Domini Saxon appeal to the Pope, as revestri nolite me ab hoc die diutius flugi: lated by Eddius, the friend of the Reges ei Archiepiscopus cum consiliariis appellant, and the companion of suis censucrunt et quod postea nos cum
his second journey to Rome. It is Archiepiscopo ab Aposlolicâ sede emisso obvious that Wilfrid failed to accom. cum omnibus pæne Britannice vestræ plish his purpose. Neither on his gentis Præsulibus judicavimus ; hoc in- first nor on his second return, was quam, quamdiu vixero propter Aposto- be put in possession of the See of licæ sedis, ut dicitis, scripta, nunquam which he had been deprived by an rolo mutare." Eddius Ixi. observed that the plorase ab Apostolică English Synod. The Pope prosede emissus, which Mr. Lingard and nounced the deprivation illegal and others translate an emissary of the Apos- unjust; but the effect of his sentence tolic See, can only bear the signification was, in the first instance, the imassigned to it above, for Berthwald was prisonment and exile of the man in not sent from Rome like Theodore, whose favour it was pronounced ; but was an Englishman by birth, and and in the second, the restoration of his nomination to the See of Canterbury two monasteries and their revenues. was domestic. REMEMBRANCER, No. 44,
The latter event is attributable was formerly stated, died at Rome, solely to the death of the King, to and the Pope Vilatian sent Theodore whom the Pope's Letter was ad- to England in his place. The Kings dressed, and to the descent of the and Clergy thankfully accepted so crown upon the head of an infant distinguished a man, and he became under the controul of Wilfrid him- primate-not because the Pope deself. The Bishops of the kingdom clared him so, but because the two of Northumberland opposed the most considerable kingdoms wished measure vehemently, but were si- such a person to be appointed, and lenced by an Abbess and a Regent. consented to this particular selecA little discreet management turned tion. The learning and great merits the case into a precedent. It was of Theodore procured a general pretended that Wilfrid had been acknowledgment of his authority; restored in obedience to the man. and this point was no sooner carried, date of the Pope, and restored to than the Pope claimed his obediall his rights; and future ages were
ence as a subject and servant; and persuaded of the legality of the it is probable that Theodore's gratiTransaction, and of the propriety of tude inclined him to consent. The taking it for a model. The whole consent, however, was withheld as may be considered as a fair speci- long as he was in activity and men of the manæuvres and success health ; but on his death-bed, and of Rome.
in his old age, he was persuaded to In spite of the commands of repent of his disobedience, and to Pope Gregory, the power of Eng- leave the servitude which he had lish Archbishops, before the arrival spurned as a legacy to his succes. of Theodore, did not extend beyond sors. The first of them was easily the dominions of their respective induced to submit to the usurped kings. Every kingdom and every authority of Rome ; but the king of church had the same limits; and Northumberland, and bis bishops, where the church was subdivided opposed a formidable obstacle to into several dioceses, some particular its establishment, until Wilfrid took see was made paramount over the advantage of a minority to trample rest. Theodore was received and upon the rights of the crown, and of a acknowledged as primate of all despotic Regent to silence and intimi. England ; but this rank did not re
date the Clergy. And, as if success sult from his being an emissary thus obtained, was neither sufficiently from Rome, but from the circum- disgraceful nor sufficiently secure, the stance of his being invited over by writers of the next age, and even all the Clergy and several of the Bede himself have the effrontery to kings of the country. Oswy, king assure us that Wilfrid was restored, of Northumberland, and Ecgbert, by the council of Nidd, to all bis king of Kent, with the consent and former dignities * This completes approbation of the Clergy of Eng- the chain of trickery and imposture, land, sent Wighardt to Rome, in and puts the seal to the fairness and the year 1667, to be consecrated a importance of Eddius's Life of Wil. bishop. And this step was taken frid. It may not suit the purposes because both kings had now braced the Roman customs, and
* “ Unde factum est ut regnante Osredi wished to have a bishop whose con
filio ejus mox synodo facta juxta fluvium secration could not be disputed, Nidd, post aliquantum utrusque partis conand who might consequently offici. Aictum, tandem cunctis faventibus, in ate as an archbishop throughout the Præsulatum sit suæ receptus ecclesiæ." whole of Britain Wighardt, as
Bede V, 19. Who could suppose, from
this statement, that Wilfrid obtained his * Bede III. 29.
two Monasteries and nothing more?