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by patriotisni (i.e. attachment to the po. the party adopted; a jealous aversion to
litical community we belong to), is well every rival party, and a tendency to subc known; it has often led men to resign divide, and separate into fresh parties,
cheerfully all personal objects, and even upon any point in which a certain number life itself, for the sake of the conimunity; coincide with each other, and differ from and thus to forego all their own share of the rest) anul that thence it has a principal those common advantages, for whose saké share in producing and keeping np almost alone, as some pretend, the community it all the contests that have ever existed, self was formed. In this case indeed there from the most gigantic wars betweca is an obligation of duty ; the force of which nations, down to the most obscure local
has often, no doubt, had great in uence in controversies; and bas even given rise » producing such conduct; but we cannot probably to more dissensions between
prononnce a sense of duty to be in gene- individuals than were ever produced by ral the sole motive, nor, always, even a merely personal feelings :—if, I say, we part of the motive, which leads to these consider all this, we cannot but admit results, if we consider both low little of a' that of all the principles which actnate the general sense of duty has apparently been human mind, this is one of the most refelt by men wbo yet have plainly shewn markable, and in its effects most momenthemselves not destitute of patriotism,- tous." P. 8. how little many of them have been dis
In the theory thus developed, we posed, in any other case, to sacrifice their own to their neighbour's good;-what are unable to believe; and it is for. Aagitious actions, in violation of duty, tunate that the subsequent lectures some have perpetrated, with a view to the do not nece
ecessarily involve a suppe. benefit of their country ;-and lastly, how sition of its truth. The existence much of the same zeal and attachment is and power of party feeling may be daily shewn by the members of such fac. admitted and acted upon, by those tions, sects, or parties, as have not that claim npon the conscience. In fact, hu- who cannot perceive that it origi man conduct altogether would be an in- nates in sympathy. And we should explicable riddle to any one who should dismiss this part of the subject deny or overlook the existence of party- without any other remark, did we feeling as a distinct, and powerful, and not apprehend that Mr. Whately is general principle of our nature. Every guilty of an oversight which cripples page of history might teach us, if the ex
bis subsequent operations, when he perience of what daily passes before our
omits to place self-love among the eyes, were not sufficient, how slight an attraction is enongli to combine men in causes of party spirit. parties, for any object, or for no object at
That there is an intimate connecall,how slender a tie will suffice to hold tion between sympathy and partythem together,- whether a community of spirit we admit. A man who is iuinterests, or of situations, or of opinions, for eveu the colour of an ornament, as in feels disposed to like or to sympa
tent upon some favourite subject, the celebrated case of the rival parties in the Byzantine circus ;) and with what thise with those who re-echo his eagerness, often what disproportionate sentiments and support his under. eagerness, men engage in the cause of the takings; and friendships as well as party they have espoused. Even when enmities arise every day from this they vpite for the sake of some object general if not universal disposition. which they previously had much at heart, But how does this unite men in a what an accession of ardour do they receive from their union! like kindled brands, party? It seems to prove (what is which, if left to themselves, separately, often notoriously the case) that in. would be soon extinct, but when thrown dividual attachments are produced together, burst into a blaze.
by party feelings, rather than party "Now if to the considerations which feelings by individual attachments, have been thus briefly touched upon, we And it fails to exhibit any intelligiadd this circumstance, that the principle ble connection between the cause we are speaking of is not only a source of and the effect. We have the asserunion, but also of division ;-of discord, no less than of concord, (since it implies in tion of the theorist for the accuracy its very nature, hostility to everything of his theory, and we have nothing that opposes the interests aud objects of more. It is true that there is a
principle in human nature which successors have been able to dis. leads men to act more vehemently cover. when they act in concert and com These, however, are neither impany; Social study is more intense, portant or practical inquiries; and social pleasure more animated. The if we conceive that Mr. Whately is hopes, and the fears, and the kind, unsuccessful in conducting them, ness, and the cruelty of a multitude, we attribute his failure to the unat. are encreased by mutual excite- tainable nature of his pursuit. The ment. Their sentiments, whether simplicity of which he is enamoured good or bad, are proverbially catch- does not exist in human nature; and ing; and much that is important in he errs by taking a part for the society, has been effected by a pro. whole. A more important error is per use of this circumstance. We committed when he confounds the presume that Mr. Whately would principle of party feeling with the attribute this, as he may very well cause of party union. After men do, to sympathy; and we suspect have united in a party or a sect, that it is this very circumstance they feel a strong and often an ex which has led to his hypothesis. cessive attachment to the body with When men are united accidentally which they are connected, and or intentionally, sympathy will this attachment, according to Mr. heighteu any passion which fiuds its Whately, is also produced by symway into their breasts. Among the pathy. Now we are born members rest, it will heighten party spirit; of a party-that is to say, of this but it cannot be said therefore to or that family, in a particular vilproduce it.
lage of a particular district. And Could we agree with Mr. Whately we have attachments one within in his account of the origin of so another corresponding to each of ciety, we should not despair of these relations. A peasant wishes coming to an understanding upon his children to be more active, the subject of party; for we ac handsome, and successful, than any quiesce in his opinion respecting others in the parish, not merely be. the similarity and near relationship cause he loves them, but because of social and party union. But in they are his own. Villagers desire attributing social union to an in- and enjoy the triumph of their stiuctive love of sympathy, has not cudgellers or cricket-players over Mr. Whately fallen into the com- the inhabitants of an adjoining mon error of speculative philoso- hamlet, because the prowess and phers, and assigned a single cause the glory are in soine respects their to that which is the joint result of own. And if we ascend to the many? The children of the first more important parties which die families found themselves, in one vide countries and churches, we company, obeying one parent, and shall still find that self-love is at possessing one common interest; the bottom of esprit de corps. and wisely left it to a more refined Nor is there any difficulty, upon age to determine whether they were these principles, in discovering the brought together by expediency or nse and abuse of party. Its great instinct. In the same way the first advantage is co-operation, subordiparty was formed by two or more nation, and other kiudred benefits. persons being disposed to pursue And the point to be gained is to the same object, and uniting for the make men work under his controul purpose of its accomplishment. But with the same 'activity, self-devowhether the motive for this union tion, perseverance, and effect, as if was experience, or reason, or sym- they were in pursuit of individual pathy, we believe they could not benefits. Sympathy, or patriotism, tell, and we are uot aware that their or duty, under any title, would not
suffice for the purpose; and there- admirable description of partyfore human nature is wisely consti- spirit. The second and third Lectuted in a manner which leads niost tures appear to us to be the most men to identify themselves with successful portion of the work, and their party.
We are furnished at we confidently anticipate the thanks once with the necessary impulse, of our readers, for furnishing them and the no less necessary controul. with such passages as the following. Self becomes subordinate to society
“ Besides the faults already mentioned, ---private exertions are directed by public discretion--and the only as, property speaking, excesses of partydanger is, lest we should make too peusities also, whiclı have an especial ten
feeling itself, there are many other procomplete a transfer of the indivi- dency to mix themselves with this feeling, dual to the party, and serve the one to call it into action, and to aggravate with the same immoderate zeal with its mischiefs. Such are VANITY and AMwhich we are prone to serve the BITION; fondness for NOVELTY ; love of other; lest the aggrandizement of a
DISPUTATION, in those who are, or believe party should be pursued without themselves, skilful disputants ; and lastly, sufficient reflection and restraint; humbling, mortifying, and insulting
that PROUD SPIRIT, which delights in sest the injuries of our sect should and triumphs in taking vengeance for any be resented with the same intem. opposition or affront. perate anger, and its merits exag “Both the love of power and the love of gerated with the same undistinó fame, are so effectually gratified by a guishiog vanity which are called mar's being one of the leaders or princimto action when we are personally hence an obvious temptation to form ar
pal supporters of a party, that he has concerned. Without enlarging fur
to cherish a party, in order to increase bis ther upon this subject at present, own influence, and shew his importance ; we may express our complete con- especially if (as is often the case) no other viction that all the phenomena at avenues to power and distinction appear tending the esprit de corps may be
to lie open to him. And many, doubtless, satisfactorily accounted for upon
who have been influenced by these or other this obvious principle. The occa
corrupt motives, have been themselves by
no means aware of the bias under which sional sacrifice of self-interest at the they were acting : but have effectually deshrine of party is no valid objection ceived their own conscieners, by exaggeto our hypothesis : nor can we ado rating, to themselves, as well as to others, mit that such sacrifices occur so the importance of the cause they were frequently as Mr. Whately ima- engaged in.
“ Again, the lore of novelty,--the pleas gines. For one who is a zealot in the cause of his country or his sect, thinkers, or, at least, of being able to
sure men have in the idea of being original there are a thousand active men
shake off established prejudices, ---to judge who devote their whole lives to the for themselves, and to despise the notions pursuit of their individual ends. of the vulgar,—these have a strong tenBut it happens that the exception dency to induce inen to broach new docis more noticed than the rule; be
trines or schemes of their own, or to adopt
those proposed by another; and thus to cause a' party-man who bustles
create and strengthen parties to about, and endeavours to support Controversial ability also, real or supor oppose us, cannot fail of attract- posed, contributes puwerfully to generate, ing our observation, while the quiet and keep up, and inflame party-spirit, by follower of bis own lawful calling, sits at home and is forgotten.
* Wesley seeins to have been, in a most It is time, however, to return to remarkable degree, unconscions ' of the
ambitious feelings by which he was so the body of Mr. Whately's work.
much influenced. The first Lecture concludes by
* Priestley, and many other Unitarian shewing that Christianity plainly re writers, afford some of the most striking cognises the proper use of party instances of the operation of this priufeeling; and the second gives an ciple.
creating in the able disputant a fondness overy kind of compromise and concession for controversy *; in the same manner as is most revolting to a proud, angry, and the possession of military skill, and the jealous spirit. These haughty and insocommand of warlike troops, is apt to en lent passions therefore, as well as those courage a delight in war. Every one natu- above mentioned, coutribute greatly to rally feels a pleasure in doing that which call forth, and to cherish party-spirit, he is conscious of doing well, especially if which, in turn, fosters and inflames them. it be what has long been his accustomed Intemperate violence and bitterness of eniployment. And though no one pro hostility has indeed been above reckoned bably ever acknowledged, even to himself
, as itself one of the excesses of party-feela feeling of mortification at the abolition ing: and in fact, the influence of the maof a party, and the dropping of a contro- levolent passions and of party-spirit on versy, which might have employed the elo- each other being mntual, men are somequence of his tongue and peu, or a regret times, by their attachment to a party, led that his sword should rust in inglorious to indulge in a malignant triumph, and peace, yet no one who is acquainted with sometimes, by their delight in such a trilanman nature, can doubt the existence of umph, become attached to a party. : such feelings.
“A long catalogue of other feelings “ Now controversy being almost always might be added, wbich under particular either the offspring or the parent of party, circumstances, and in particular indiviit is not wonderful that a love of disputa- duals, tend to promote party-spirit, and to tion should almost always either give oc aggravate its mischiefs ; but these which casion to, or exasperate, party-spirit. And have been mentioned are not such as are that the most trifling subject (if no more occasionally and accidentally connected important one be at hand) will furnish, to with it, but are its natural forerunners or those who are so disposed, matter for fu concomitants, whatever be the nature of rious debate, division into factions, and the party, of the cause, or of the contests narrow-minded bigotry, is remarkably ex it leads to." P. 45. emplified in the celebrated dispute be “ 1. The most remarkable characteristic tween the Realists and Nominalists, which of party-spirit—the disposition to prefer 80 long and so vehemently agitated the the means to the end, the party itself, public mind, till the reformation quelled and whatever tends to maintain it, -to the it, by diverting the attention of the dise object it originally proposed, has been forputants to a more interesting subject: a merly described, and its ill effects pointed sufficient proof that Religion was not the out. We must guard against it by keeping cause of these acrimonious contests, but steadily in view what are the ends proonly furpished the matter of them ;- it posed, and wliat, merely the institutions was the tield on which the combatants that preserve the society, and the marks engaged, but did not excite them to the that distinguish and hold it together : dot battle.
that we are to neglect these ; but to value “Lastly, all the proud, insolent, and and pursue them as meaus, and in propor. resentful feelings of mankind, and the de. tion as they conduce to the original object. light they take in triumpling over an op To relinquish that very object for the sake ponent, have a powerful influence (when of them, or to regard it with comparative men are once engaged) in keeping up and indifference, or to uphold the party, when embittering the spirit of party. Their that object no longer appears desirable, is zeal and avimosity, however small at first, not only a glaring inconsistency, but is also are inflamed by opposition; and they be- productive of various evil consequences. come attached to the party in whose ranks “ How ready, many have been to abanthey have fought. If there be not, as some don the points originally regarded as the have supposed, a love of contention for its fundamental principles of their sect or own sake, inherent in some men, it is cer- church,-or liow indifferent in maintaining tain that a haughty resentment of everythem,--though they remain as firmly atprovocation, and a delight in humbling, tached as ever to the same party, is well mortifying, and triumphing over an adver- known. Few Presbyterians probably of sary, are dispositions but too general. the present day would attach much impor. Now the breaking down of party dis tance to most of the scruples respecting tinctions, and the silencing of controversy, our liturgy, and church-government, which destroys the hope of such triumphs; and originally operated so strongly in producing
the schism. But a breach once made is * Many examples might be founıl among ‘not easily closed ; and the lapse of time, the metaphysical theologians who have thongh it may have worn away the original written on the Calvinistic questions. causes of the separation, renders a re-union
more difficult than ever. The scion which objects which are pursued because desirahas long been severed from the parent ble, than for one which appears to them stock, cannot easily be reingrafted. desirable, only because they have been
“ Among the members, however, of the accustomed to pnrsue it. And since this Romish communion, an instance may be infirmity is inherent in human nature, we fonnd which is much more remarkable, must not rashly flatter ourselves that the from the circumstance that, that Church orthodoxy of our cause will preserve us claiming infallible authority, whoever ad from it. If in our contests with Papists, mits her doctrines or practice to be in any or with sectarians, we ever find cause to point erroneous, has virtually denied that censure their obstipate adherence to a claim, and thereby convicted her (in his
party whose errors they are convinced of, own judgment) of a false and impious ago let us be careful that we on our part fail sumption of the power of the most High: not to shew as much sincere and practical yet notwithstanding this, it is well known attachment to our faith as to the outposts that there are many Papists who (though and bulwarks that defend it; that we ap, not unbelievers in the Christian revelation)
pear not, warmly interested for the refor do not scruple, privately, to avow their re- mation, while we are indifferent to the rejection of several of the most fundamen ligion itself that is reformed, or more zealtally erroneous tenets of their Church, and ous for the mitre than the cross, for the their disapprobation of many of its ordi. Church, than for the Gospel. Our Lord nances; who are even ready to ridicole stands eminently distinguished from the many of the superstitions it has sanctioned, teachers of false religions, hy his never aland would even be sorry to have it sup lowing respect for bimself, and zeal for the posed that they really made a full confes
propagation of his religion, to stand as a sion to their priests ;-yet would shudder substitute for the essential points of conat the very mention of openly renouncing formity to his commands, and personal ho.. that Church; and would be even proud of liness: 'Why,' says He,' call ye me their adherence to it, as to the only true Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I and catholic church, and the only one pos say? and He declares that even those who sessing decisive and infallible authority. have wrought miracles in his name, will, if
“ It is indeed a common remark, that found workers of iniquity, be rejected by the name is in general the last thing men bim. will consent to part with; and that a sect “ Since then the just boast of our will often be brought insensibly to explain Church is its conformity to the institutions away or abandon most of their primary and of the Apostles, and its tendency to profundamental tenets, while they would mote the religion they taught, it should be shrink from the proposal of breaking up the regarded as a kind of treason against that sect itself. Now in the case of those who Church to profess zeal for its form, while see good reason for giving up those points of we are careless of its spirit; and to maindistinction, and renoancing those objects, tain its institutions, while we are forgetful which origioally formed their party, it is of the ends it proposes." P. 86. clear that the prohibition of canseless divisions enjoins the dissolution of the party On the fourth, fifth, sixth, and itself; and that it is only a vicious party- seventh Lectures, which treat of spirit that can still hold it together as a distinct body. But may not a similar spirit
allowable differences among Chrisoperate on the members of a society whose
tians, Christian conduct towards object ought not to be abandoned, and opponents, foolish and unlearned whose fundamental principles are not erro questions and conduct with respect neous ? They also may surely be guilty of to dissenters, we are unable to bepreferring the means to the end; the stow the space and consideration party itself, and whatever tends to support
which they deserve. If they have it, to the original purpose of it; and as the former class are right in abandoning any fault, it is that they are extheir original principles, but blameable in tended to a greater length than the still maintaining their party, so these last subject matter requires. Its im., are right in adhering to the body they portance, generally speaking, is " belong to, but highly enlpable in forgetting much greater than its novelty; and or neglecting its main object. But such
though there is no part of these is human nature, that without continnal watchfulness, this tendency to prefer the
Discourses which may not be admeans to the end will continually shew it
vantageously listened to by a comself; and men will be less zealous for those mon congregation, or reflected upon REMEMBRANCER, No. 47.