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wished any one to magnify his place in the world, to emphasize unduly his services in his generation. I have had no thought of pronouncing a eulogy upon him. I think that he would have liked to be remembered in this place, by neighbors and friends, in his church, in Connecticut. It would have pleased him that men and women in New Haven should care for him still, and be glad to look upon his face. He made no selfish struggle for place or power.

He did his work and let it pass for what it might. He did the work close at hand and took up.one task after another as they came to him. He walked our streets with us and went in and out among us, and we let men further away from us stand as larger men in the world than one close at hand. We dissociate greatness from one beside us and so are often unjust.

The venerable man of whom I have spoken this evening and whose portrait is henceforth to adorn our walls, was a man of great dignity of character, of the highest ideals as regards integrity and honor and justice, a man of great gentleness and kindness, his life lightened up with a sense of humor, a plain, approachable, straightforward man of the best New England type, reverent, God-fearing, associated in a helpful way with many institutions and interests, very useful in his day and generation, a man of unusual wisdom and judgment, a lover of truth in speech and in writing and a lover of righteousness, having large if quiet part in many movements which make for religion and for the common good, --so he lived among us and worked with us, so he made out his useful and honored life, blessed with many days and using them all well, and so in full possession of his powers of mind and body, he fell asleep. There are many men for whom all this could not be said, who by reason of some incident or chance in life, some striking if not fruitful trait of character, take large place in the world and are called great. But to-night I speak of one who exemplified the virtues and qualities out of which good national and church life, good religion, are made. There is little that is striking or dramatic here, but the strength and substance of life are here. Dr. Beardsley has won and keeps his place among our Connecticut worthies, and while we are not unmindful of the great world without, this is much to say for any man.

Some long lives seem to run out like the rivers which in their last reaches, before they are lost in the ocean, are sluggish, hard to distinguish from an inlet setting back from the sea, freshness and vigor and clearness gone, tarrying a little among the lower levels until they are lost. This it is commonly because men are willing to cease to live before they die, by losing their interest in life and their hold upon it. Not so Dr. Beardsley. He kept his interest in life and he worked on to the end, no break in his usefulness or his work,-having the reward of temperate, orderly, godly living and high thinking. It seems a new world when such lives end and make a break with the old order.

I think that the prayer of Bishop Jeremy Taylor, which he loved well and used often, was for him fulfilled. Having served God in his generation, he was gathered unto his fathers, having the testimony of a good conscience, in the communion of the Catholic Church, in the confidence of a certain faith, in the comfort of a reasonable, religious and holy hope, in favor with his God, and in perfect charity with the world.

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WHY NEW HAVEN IS NOT A STATE OF

THE UNION

BY ERNEST H. BALDWIN, PH.D.

[Read December 15, 1902.]

It should be stated at the beginning that the following paper contains no new or hitherto unknown material bearing upon the history of New Haven. It merely aims to present in somewhat new relations, old, familiar and well authenticated facts connected with early local history. If, iņ so doing, it serves to interest or instruct, its purpose will be accomplished.

The suggestion that in the old New Haven Colony was the inherent possibility of future statehood in the Union, may seem a rather singular one; it certainly offers an interesting theme. This paper will attempt to show that such an idea is not unwarranted, and that the New Haven Colony, but for certain unfortunate events connected with its early history, might have reached such an honor and dignity.

Did it ever occur to you to ask why there were thirteen original States, instead of twelve or fourteen or fifteen ? Certainly it was not merely to prove that that long-suffering number could have no baneful influence upon republican institutions. It was simply due to the fact that thirteen distinct colonies, so recognized, succeeded in emerging from the Colonial and Revolutionary periods as separate and acknowledged independent governments. All had passed through strange vicissitudes, but none, founded as separate and distinct governments and able to make the least claim to importance or influence, failed to become states of the Union except Plymouth and New Haven. The pioneer labors of the Pilgrims failed to maintain the independence of the oldest New England colony chiefly because of its unfavorable situation; while the untiring exertions of the Puritan settlers of Quinnipiac proved unavailing against repeated misfortune and disaster.

No colony in old New England was begun under conditions more favorable or with success more promising than the colony of New Haven. Its financial capital was large, the learning and ability of its leaders were conspicuous, their experience with affairs was wide, and the courage and determination of the settlers was such as characterized all the persecuted Puritans of the time of Charles I. Founded as a distinct colony, with an independent government, within a very short time it had united under its jurisdiction. a number of neighboring settlements extending more than fifty miles along the southern shore of New England, and including a portion of northern Long Island. Certainly no independent colonial enterprise seemed more likely to be of permanence than that directed by John Davenport and Theophilus Eaton. Had it been able to obtain that official recognition and legal foundation so necessary for permanent and separate colonial existence, there seems no reason to doubt that New Haven would also have become a State of the Union.

I now propose to consider the causes of New Haven's failure to obtain this legal foundation, and the circumstances under which it was compelled to submit to the government of the Connecticut Colony. Under the first head I shall discuss three causes, namely: financial, political and ecclesiastical, and in the order named, as being both logical and chronological. Under the second head I shall give a necessarily condensed account of the great controversy over the union of New Haven with its more powerful neighbor.

First, the causes of failure.

It often happens, and quite naturally, that the unusual or exciting character of an event attracts such attention and interest of itself, that the more important result of the same event is overlooked or forgotten. Innumerable instances of this might be given. Washington crossing the Delaware was a thrilling incident, and is remembered, described and painted. Its con

1

nection with other events, and its influence in reviving hope and courage and faith in the American cause, are usually overlooked. This, it seems to me, is true also in the case of certain well-known events in the early history of New Haven. The story of the Phantom Ship possesses a weird interest, suggests a sad poem, and is thought of merely as an example of the morbid superstition of the early Puritans; that precious lives, a valuable cargo, and a costly ship were lost, and that this loss was a crushing blow to the material interests of the new colony at Quinnipiac, is lost sight of. The bold defence of the Regicides excites our admiration, prompts the preservation of their rocky refuge, and is cherished as one of the inspiring traditions of local history; the fact that it cost the struggling little colony favor at the court of Charles II. at the most critical period in its history, is forgotton.

The first mentioned incident formed a fitting climax to that series of misfortunes and disasters which impoverished the New Haven Colony in the first few years of its existence and of which I shall now speak in considering the first cause of failure, namely, the financial. While Quinnipiac was settled with the definite aim of founding a "state whose design is religion,” important consideration was also given to the material side of the enterprise. The influential members of the company had been interested in trade and commerce and intended to engage in the same pursuits in New England. For this reason they chose as the place for their settlement a site at the head of an excellent harbor. In laying out their town they made ample provision for a market-place. Every facility was afforded to promote their cherished ambition. Standing timber suitable for ship-building and masts was carefully protected from injury and waste. Ship-carpenters were exempted from military trainings. Aid was given for the constructing of wharves. To maintain a sufficient depth of water in its channel, ship-captains were forbidden to throw ballast overboard into the harbor. All these efforts availed nothing, however. The ambition to make New Haven a rich commercial city was

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