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continue so, that he makes himself for a while a soldier.

-Kerr's Blackstone, i. 414. Cobbett ventures to correct Sir William Blackstone, saying that so ought to be such; but the custom of the language warrants this use of so.

Lindley Murray unfortunately took it into his head to order such to be turned into so, whenever it was found in company with another attributive. The notion has no foundation in truth or reason; and the construction is constantly found in our best writers : ‘such worthy attempts, Milton ; such great and strange passages, South.See Kerchever Arnold's English Grammar, 72.

272. SAME is called by some grammarians a demonstrative pronoun. It is used both as an adjective and as a substantive; and is usually preceded by the, this, or that.

The two men were of the same nature.
He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth
forth much fruit.—John xv. 5.
Obs.—The Anglo-Saxon same is an adverb. The correspond-

ing adjectives are sylf, 'self,' and ylc, the Scottish ilk,
as 'Glengarry of that ilk,' i.e.‘of the same' or 'Glen-

garry of Glengarry.' 273. ONLY (Anglo-Saxon an-lic, 'one-like ') is a derivative of one. The original pronunciation of the word (one) is preserved in this derivative, and in ALONE, "all-one. It is not used substantively, but as an adjective; the only son,' an only child. It is also used as an adverb.-See $$ 434–438.

II. Words denoting quantity, or number. 274. Indefinites. These might be called Indefinite Numerals, as they have reference to number or quantity, without however defining,' that is, 'marking out' or determining the precise number.

ONE. The numeral one is often used substantively, meaning a single individual of some kind already mentioned. When thus used, it may even take the plural form: 'Give me another

pen; 'this is a bad one,' or 'these are bad ones.' ONE = French on. We must not confound this word (which is said ta be derived ultimately from the French homme, 'man') with the numeral just mentioned. It is never found in the plural, but admits the possessive case singular : as,

One does not like to lose one's property. Some writers consider this use of the possessive inelegant; but it is still more awkward to introduce the genitive of a personal pronoun in its stead : as, “One does not like to lose his property.' In such instances, perhaps the best way is to give the whole sentence a turn : as, “ Loss of property is not agreeable to any one.'

This word is always used substantively.

275. None is compounded of ne-one; that is, not-one. And although, if one be singular, we might expect not one to be also singular; yet when this word is used substantively, it is sometimes followed by a plural verb. Indeed, this is almost invariably the case when a genitive plural intervenes : as, None of the castles were taken.' This is literally not-one

.. were; ' but an idea is suggested to the mind, that all the castles were safe ;' that all were un-taken ;' and so the verb runs into the plural.

This usage is so common, with good writers, that I suppose we must allow it.

When this word is used adjectively, it is interchanged with no; that is, none differs from no, as mine differs from my. No is used when the noun which it qualifies is expressed; and none when the noun is not expressed : as, “I have no book, and my friend has none.'

276. Any is from the Anglo-Saxon æn-ig, which is derived from an or æn, 'one,' with the adjective termination -ig; so that the word any is originally an adjective. With nouns in the singular it often implies quantity; but, with nouns in the plural, it always refers to number. Its general signification is any whatever : as,

Mere strength of understanding would perhaps have

made him such in any age.De Quincey. With words of negation it excludes all: as, 'He has not received any letters.' The substantive use of the word is very common : as, Brutus. Who is here so base, that would be a bond

man ? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who
is here so rude, that would not be a Roman? If any,
speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile,
that will not love his country? If any, speak; for

him have I offended. I pause for a reply.
Citizens. None, Brutis, none.
Brutus. Then none have I offended.

Julius Cæsar, iii. 2. 277. Aught is in Anglo-Saxon a-wiht, aht.

The Anglo-Saxon wiht is the English whit and wight, thing' and person.' Hence aught means 'anything.'

The derivation is in favour of writing aught, rather than ought; and convenience dictates the same spelling; for ought is employed as part of the verb.owe,' and there is an advantage in keeping distinct forms for distinct meanings.

Naught is compounded of the negative ne and aught, meaning 'not anything.'

These words aught and naught are originally substantives, and not adjectives. The true adjective formed from 'naught is naughty, literally meaning of no value,' worthless.' Where we read 'It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer,' we may explain the construction thus : that a substantive in the predicate has often the force of an adjective.

278. Some, Anglo-Saxon sum, is used as an adjective and as a substantive: Some men were there; 'some said so, and some said not.

In the singular, when employed as a substantive, it usually implies quantity : as, Some of his skill he taught to me.

Scott. In the plural it implies number: as, ' Some wish to be rich.' There is a distinction between some and any :

Some means ' not none,' one or more.'

Any means 'some, no matter which.' Professor Bain says (English Grammar, p. 31),

666 Some denotes an uncertain portion of an entire collection.

'In strict logic it signifies “not none,” that is, some at least. There is a more popular meaning, which implies less than the whole, some only, or some at most. 66 Some men are wise" insinuates that there are other men not wise. Hence the alternative signification : some believed, and some (others) believed not.

279. OTHER. The derivation of this word seems doubtful; but it is probably derived from the root of the word one, with the termination ther, which denotes one of two,' as in 'ei-ther,' corresponding to the ter in the Latin u-ter, neu-ter.

But, in practice, the word other is not restricted to instances where two alone are in question; it may apply to any number, and means some one, but not this ;'any, but not this.'

The ordinary use of the word as an adjective before a substantive is well known ; 'the other day,' the other way.' But

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when it stands alone, referring to a preceding substantive, as • He had no taste for poetry dramatic or other,' some writers appear to think this construction bald, and would even write, dramatic or otherwise. But, strictly speaking, otherwise is an adverb, meaning in another way;' whereas, in this construction, we want an adjective. The only way of defending otherwise' in this connection, would be to contend that here it means of another kind.' Such an interpretation, however, is doubtful; and it is better to say “dramatic or other.'

So also, in phrases involving a comparison, we should distinguish other than from otherwise than ; as,

(Adjective) He had no books other than classical. (Adverb) . . . He never spoke otherwise than persuasively.

280. When an precedes other, the two are often written as one word, another; and observe, that the other means the second of two;' another means 'one of any number above

two :' as,

Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall

be taken, and the other left.—Matt. xxiv. 41. One generation passeth away, and another generation

cometh.—Ecclesiastes i. 4. Care must be taken not to confound the ideas of two' and more than two,' and so to misapply the words 'the other' and another. For example, in this passage,

And the house of Baal was full from one end to another.

-2 Kings x. 21. we are ready to ask, what other? It should be from one end to the other.'

In short, another' is Indefinite; the other 'is Alternative.

281. Many. In Anglo-Saxon there are two words: (1) an adjective, manig, or mænig, 'many,' 'much;' (2) a substantive, mænigeo, 'a multitude,' crowd.'

Both these words appear to have given rise to our word many, which is used sometimes as a substantive, and at other times as an adjective: as,

(Adjective) . . . Many men, many minds.—Proverb. (Substantive) The many rend the skies with loud ap

plause. -Dryden, Alexander's Feast. The use of many in construction with the indefinite article



will be considered in the next chapter; at present, we compare the following phrases :

(1) Many men.
(2) Many a man,

(3) A many men. (1). In the first example, many is an adjective agreeing with men.

(2). In the second, many is also an adjective; and by an idiom, to be discussed in the next chapter, the indefinite article comes between the adjective and the substantive : so,

Full many a gem of purest ray serene
The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear :
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

Gray, Elegy. (3). In the third example, many is a substantive derived from mænigeo, denoting multitude ; and men is a genitive by juxtaposition, dependent upon 'many.' Hence, 'a many men' means a multitude of men.'

282. Few, derived from the Anglo-Saxon adjective feawa, still appears as an adjective in few persons,'' few things.' It is employed in connection with the indefinite article in such phrases as “a few years,' a few apples,' where the construction presents some difficulty. For there is no authority for calling few a substantive; and, on the other hand, if few be an adjective, it must be in the plural to agree with 'pears' or apples;' whereas the indefinite article a requires that few should be in the singular.

283. Distributives ; each,' every.' These words have reference to the members of a class, or to the parts of a whole, and are thus distinguished:

Each means every ' individual of a certain class, viewed

Every means ' each' taken collectively.
Each is derived from the Anglo-Saxon ælc.
It is used adjectively and substantively; as,

Each man had his weapon.

Each had his appointed place. It is properly singular ; and the correlative isother,' as in the phrase bear each other's burdens.'

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