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He blenches not, he blenches not.

Scott, Ivanhoe. I will not sing.

18t Hen. IV. iii. 1. The use of the double negative, with a negative force, was common, down to a late period of our literature : so, I never was, nor never will be, false.

Rich. III. iv. 1.
The man that hath no music in himself,
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils.

Merchant of Venice, v. i.
This England never did, nor never shall
Lie at the proud foot of a conqueror.

King John, v. 7. 425. Nay (nae), and no.

A.-S. ná and no.
Ne eom ic ná Crist.
Ne am I no (not) Christ.

"I am not the Christ.'-John i. 20.
No thy læs, na-the-less,' never the less,' whence in

older English we have natheless' and nathless.' In the Scottish dialect, nae and no are constantly used for

• This is no my ain lassie,' and 'This is nae my ain lassie.' I suspect that in the phrase whether or no,' we have a remnant of the old language; “It is all the same, whether he comes, or no,' that is, ' whether he comes, or comes not.' 426. In ordinary English, nay and no are chiefly used in

As a general rule, nay is more common in provincial English, than in the language of the metropolis or the universities.

Sir Thomas More asserts a distinction between nay and no, corresponding to a distinction between yea and yes ; and he censures Tyndal for not observing the difference in his translation of John i. 21 : . And thei asked him, what then, art thou Helias ? And he sayd I am not. Arte thou a prophet? And he aunswered, No. According to Sir Thomas More, No should have been rendered Nay. But the reason assigned by Sir Thomas does not support his argument. He says: 'No aunswereth the question framed by the affirmative. As, for ensample, if a man should ask Tindall himself: ys an heretike mete to translate holy scripture into englishe? Lo to thys question if he will aunswere trew englishe, he must aunswere naye and not no. But and if the question be asked hym thus, lo; Is not an heretyque mete to translate

not: as,


holy scripture into Englishe? To thys question lo if he wil aunswere
true englishe he must aunswere no and pot nay.'
According to these examples, the rule should have been stated thus :
Vay answers a question framed in the affirmative: as

Art thou a prophet ? Nay.
No answers a question framed in the negative : as,

Art thou not a prophet ? No.

See Marsh, Lectures on the English Language, xxvi. 682. 427. No appears in composition with many words. We say no-where and no-whither, but not no-whence or no-when. No-how is sometimes employed, but it is not considered elegant.

For neither, nor, see § 449.

428. Never is compounded of ne, 'not,' and ever. Never and ever are often confounded. Never is an adverb of time: as, Seldom or never has an English word two full accents.' Ever is an adverb both of time and of degree: as, 'Ever so rich,' 'Ever so good.' Hence charm he ever so wisely' is, now preferred to the older form, 'charm he never so wisely.'

We may remark that seldom or never' has the same force as seldom if ever; ' but seldom or ever' is doubtful. Atterbury says:

We seldom or ever see those forsaken who trust in God. Here it is better to say or never.' See Angus, Handbook,

§ 567.


429. Some adverbs, expressing degree or quality, admit degrees of comparison : as, Well, better,







oftenest, The use of the terminations -er and -est in forming the comparative and superlative of adverbs, was formerly much more common than at present : as,

Touching things which generally are received


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are hardliest able to bring such proof of their certainty
as may satisfy gainsayers.-Hooker, Ecclesiastical

Polity, v. 2.
That he may the stronglier provide.--Hobbes, Life of

The things highliest important to the growing age.-

Shaftesbury, Letter to Molesworth.
The question would not be, who loved himself and who

not, but who loved and served himself the rightest, and

after the truest manner.--Id., Wit and Humour. 430. These forms are often found in the poets. So Shakespeare:

O Melancholy !
Who ever yet could sound thy bottom ? find
The ooze, to show what coast thy sluggish crare
Might easiliest harbour in ?

Cymbeline, ir. 2. where the folios have easilest.

Thrice blessed they that master so their blood,
To undergo such maiden pilgrimage;
But earthlier happy is the rose distilled,
Than that which, withering on the virgin thorn,
Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness.

Midsummer Night's Dream, i. 1. On this passage Dr. Johnson remarks :- - Thus all the copies; yet earthlier is so harsh a word, and earthlier happy, for happier earthly, a mode of speech so unusual, that I wonder none of the editors have proposed earlier happy.' Steevens observes, that Pope did propose earlier. But the whole force of the passage consists in the contrast between earthly happiness' in the one 'state, and 'heavenly bliss' in the other. In this, as in many cases, Shakespeare was wiser than his editors. And so Milton:

Scepter and power, thy giving, I assume,
And gladlier shall resign, when in the end
Thou shalt be all in all, and I in thee
For ever; and in me all whom thou lov'st.

Paradise Lost, vi. 730–733.'

Which Eve
Perceiving, where she sat retired in sight,
With lowliness majestick from her seat,

- And

grace that won who saw to wish her stay,
Rose, and went forth among her fruits and flowers,
To visit how they prospered, bud and bloom,
Her nursery; they at her coming sprung,
And touched by her fair tendance, gladlier grew.

Paradise Lost, viii. 40–47.
To overcome in battle, and subdue
Nations, and bring home spoils, with infinite
Man-slaughter, shall be held the highest pitch
Of human glory, and, for glory done,
Of triumph to be styled great Conquerors,
Patrons of mankind, Gods, and Sons of Gods ;
Destroyers rightlier called, and plagues of men.

Ibid. xi. 691-697.
Princes, Heaven's ancient Sons, ethereal Thrones,
Demonian spirits now, from the element
Each of his reign allotted, rightlier called
Powers of fire, air, water, and earth beñeath !

Paradise Regained, ii. 121-124.

Each act is rightliest done,
Not when it must, but when it may be best.

Ibid. iv. 475-476. Adverbs ending in -ly are now usually compared by more and most : as, briefly, more briefly, most briefly. 431.-rather. The A.-S. adverb is ræde, rað, rade, 'soon,'

quickly;' comparative, raðor, raður; superlative,

radost. Hence . I would rather do so,' means 'I would more quickly

do so,' 'I would sooner do so.' He regned fiftene gere, and died all to rathe.Robert de

i.e. all too soon.'

O dere cosin min, Dan John, she saide,
What aileth you so rathe for to arise ?

Chaucer, Shipmannes Tale.
Some of our later poets use rathe as an adjective; so
Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies.

Lycidas, 142. In a note on this passage, Todd says that, in the West of

England there is an early species of apple called the rathe-ripe, early-ripe.' 432.liefer. This is a comparative from the A.-S. adjective

leof, loved,' beloved, dear.' God saith, As verely as I lyve, I wilnot the death of a

sinner but had liefer hem to be converted and lyve.

Joye, Exposicion of Daniel.
Shakespeare uses the positive form lief: as,

But for my single self,
I had as lief not be, as live to be
In awe of such a thing as I myself.

Julius Cæsar, i. 2. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pronounced it to you, trippingly on the tongue; but if you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief the town-crier spoke my lines.-Hamlet, iii. 2..

POSITION. 433. Adverbs are placed before the adjectives or participles which they qualify: as, 'It was very good;' 'a man greatly beloved.

So when one adverb qualifies another, the modifying adverb stands first: as, 'not wisely, but too well.'

The qualifying adverb usually follows an intransitive verb: as, “He behaved nobly,' 'She walks gracefully. When a transitive verb is used with a following objective, the adverb generally comes after the objective : as, 'He received them kindly,' He treated his friends generously. The reason is, that the verb and the objective should be kept as closely together as possible. And if

, for rhetorical purposes, it is desirable to vary the order of the sentence, still the connection of the verb and the objective should not be broken. We may say, for example, "He kindly received them;' Generously he treated his friends.'

When an auxiliary verb and a participle are used, the adverb may come between them : as, 'I have lately written to him, They were kindly received.'

Or the adverb may follow the participle, or the phrase : as, “They were received kindly;''I have written to him lately.'

When two auxiliaries are employed, their connection should not be interrupted; the adverb should come between the

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