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490. But more commonly, in English, the preposition 19 placed after the verb, and separated from it. And thus several words may come between the verb and the preposition: as, • he took them all in,' he turned every one out.'
It is a very useful exercise to take an English-French Dictionary, as that of Spiers, and to look out an English verb. The prepositions used in composition with that verb are added, with French translations of the compound verbs; and the exercise consists in making a list of the compounds, affixing to each the corresponding Latin-English derivative. The verb take will furnish us with an example:
(2) Degrade, humiliate.
Arrogate. Take with Convoy, escort. 491. It is also very necessary to observe, that many intransitive verbs become transitive, when compounded with prepositions. For example, run is intransitive; but run through is transitive. In the following list, we mark the transitive verbs
(2) Imagine. * Run down
(1) Catch, overwhelm,
(2) Decry, depreciate. Run from
Eschew, avoid. * Run through
(1) Transfix, pierce.
# Run up
LATIN PREPOSITIONS IN COMPOSITION WITH VERBS.
492. The Latin element enters largely into the English language; and it is absolutely necessary to have some knowledge of Latin prepositions, as they appear in composition with verbs. For fuller information, on this part of the subject, the student
may consult Professor Key's Latin Grammar, $ $ 808– 838, and $$ 1303-1397. It will be sufficient to remark here, that when a Latin preposition ends in a consonant, the final consonant is liable to change, if the verb, with which it is compounded, begins with a consonant. This is called assimilation, or a 'making like,' because the final consonant of the preposition is made like to the initial consonant of the verb. For example, from ad and rogo we have, not ad-rogate, but ar-rogate. In like manner, we have, not ad-similation, but as-similation.
To the prepositions, in the following list, we annex the changes to which they are liable; for instance, we give,
ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at). This means, that the preposition ad sometimes appears in composition as ac, af, ag, &c., according to the initial consonant of the verb.
• draw away.
Latin Prepositions. 493. a, ab, abs, 'from,'' away.' a-vert
turn from.' ab-solve
• loosen away.' abs-tract Prof. Key, Latin Grammar, § 1304, translates ab-use, use up,' ab-sorb, suck down.' ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at,) to,'' at,''on.' ad-here
stick to.' ac-cede
'fix on.' ag-glomerate "heap on.' al-locate
join on.' ap-preciate
put value on,' set price upon.' ar-rive
come to.' as-similate
liken to.' at-tend
. fore-date,' date before.'
494. circum, 'round.' circum-vent
come round' i.e. deceive). circum-navigate • sail round.' circum-scribe
draw a line round.' com (col, con, cor, co), with,'' together,'' up.' com-pose
place together.' col-lect
gather together,' gather up.' cor-roborate
strengthen up.' cor-rode
eat up.' co-operate
work together.' Obs. This preposition is con before consonants and co before
vowels : con-form, con-sider, con-sist ; but co-equal, co-eternal. Many persons write co-temporary' for
con-temporary;' but Richard Bentley said that he could not co-gratulato such persons on the co-position
of their words.' contra, 'against.'
contra-dict, 'speak against,''gain-say,' where gain
contains the root of a-gain, a-gainst.
contra-vene, come against.' contro, "against.'
contro-vert, 'turn against.' 495. de, down,'" forth,'out,' at.'
de-scend climb down,' come down.'
look down upon.' dis- (dif, di), “in different directions, apart,' away,' • from.'
dis-solve loosen away.'
carry in different directions.' di-verge
turn aside. ex (ef, e), 'out of," forth.'
set forth.' e-merge
come forth.' e-nuntiate tell out.'
e-migrate wander forth.' 496. in (im, il, in, and in French derivatives em, en), 'in, into,upon. in-volve
put arms round.'
look upon' i.e. with an evil eye.) inter (intel), 'between,'' among.'
inter-cede pass between,''mediate.'
inter-change change among. This preposition conveys the idea of opposition or obstruction in the words inter-cept, inter-dict (for-bid'), inter-fere.
In French derivatives it takes the form enter, as enter-prise an undertaking.' intro, “into,'' in.'
introduce, lead in.'
497. ob (oc, of, op), 'against,'' up,'' upon,'' towards.'
ob-ject cast against,'' urge against.'
'bring towards.' op-pose
put against.' op-press press upon.'
ор-риуп fight against.' 498. per, through.' per-mit
let go through. per-vade pass through
Obs.—The particle per in composition has sometimes a mean
ing akin to that of our for-, German ver-, as in the Latin per-do, 'for-do,' i.e. destroy;' so too, Latin per-juro, 'for-swear;' so, perhaps, per-vert, “turn away
from (the right).' post, 'after,' off.'
post-date after-date,' 'date-after.'
post-pone prce (pre), 'before.' pre-cede, 'go before,' not fore-go,' which is
more strictly for-go,''go without.' pre-clude "shut out beforehand.' pre-dict
· fore-tell.' pre-fer
put before. pre-tend
stretch forward' (for the purpose of
concealment). pro (por), 'for,' 'forth,' before.'
pro-ject cast forward.'
por-tend ' fore-stretch,' 'fore-token.' This preposition appears in French as pour, whence we have pour-tray, now written por-tray, 'draw forth,' • draw in outline ;' pur-pose of the same meaning as pro-pose, set forth' (as an object), 'design.' 499. re (red), 'back,' again.'
run back.' re-ject
'move back,''take away' red-eem buy back,'' buy again.' retro, ' back,'' backward.'
retro-grade 'step backward.' se, apart.' se-cede
‘go apart,'" withdraw.' se-parate put apart.' 500. sub (suc, suf, sug, sup, sur, sus, su[s]), "under,'' up,' 'over,' after, sub-due
cast under.' sub-mit
put under.' SUC-ceed
come up,'' prosper.'
run up,''help.' suf- fic
fix under,' put after.' suf-fuse