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490. But more commonly, in English, the preposition 19 placed after the verb, and separated from it. And thus several words may come between the verb and the preposition: as, • he took them all in,' he turned every one out.'

It is a very useful exercise to take an English-French Dictionary, as that of Spiers, and to look out an English verb. The prepositions used in composition with that verb are added, with French translations of the compound verbs; and the exercise consists in making a list of the compounds, affixing to each the corresponding Latin-English derivative. The verb take will furnish us with an example:

Abstract, remove
Take about Conduct, convey.
Take after

Imitate.
Take along Convey.
Take down (1) Demolish, deject,

(2) Degrade, humiliate.
Take from

Subtract.
Take in (1) Receive (with hospitality).

(2) Deceive.
Take off (1) Destroy.

(2) Ridicule.
Take on

Assume.
Take to

Adopt.
Take under Subduct.

Raise, elevate.

Arrogate. Take with Convoy, escort. 491. It is also very necessary to observe, that many intransitive verbs become transitive, when compounded with prepositions. For example, run is intransitive; but run through is transitive. In the following list, we mark the transitive verbs

Abscond. with

(1) Abduct.

(2) Imagine. * Run down

(1) Catch, overwhelm,

, ,

(2) Decry, depreciate. Run from

Eschew, avoid. * Run through

(1) Transfix, pierce.

(2) Squander.
Run off

Escape.
Incur (a debt)

Take up
Take upon

Run away
Run away

*

# Run up

LATIN PREPOSITIONS IN COMPOSITION WITH VERBS.

492. The Latin element enters largely into the English language; and it is absolutely necessary to have some knowledge of Latin prepositions, as they appear in composition with verbs. For fuller information, on this part of the subject, the student

may consult Professor Key's Latin Grammar, $ $ 808– 838, and $$ 1303-1397. It will be sufficient to remark here, that when a Latin preposition ends in a consonant, the final consonant is liable to change, if the verb, with which it is compounded, begins with a consonant. This is called assimilation, or a 'making like,' because the final consonant of the preposition is made like to the initial consonant of the verb. For example, from ad and rogo we have, not ad-rogate, but ar-rogate. In like manner, we have, not ad-similation, but as-similation.

To the prepositions, in the following list, we annex the changes to which they are liable; for instance, we give,

ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at). This means, that the preposition ad sometimes appears in composition as ac, af, ag, &c., according to the initial consonant of the verb.

• draw away.

Latin Prepositions. 493. a, ab, abs, 'from,'' away.' a-vert

turn from.' ab-solve

• loosen away.' abs-tract Prof. Key, Latin Grammar, § 1304, translates ab-use, use up,' ab-sorb, suck down.' ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at,) to,'' at,''on.' ad-here

stick to.' ac-cede

step

to. af-fix

'fix on.' ag-glomerate "heap on.' al-locate

place to.'

join on.' ap-preciate

put value on,' set price upon.' ar-rive

come to.' as-similate

liken to.' at-tend

stretch to.

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an-nesc

ante, 'before.'

ante-date
ante-cede

. fore-date,' date before.'
go before.'

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494. circum, 'round.' circum-vent

come round' i.e. deceive). circum-navigate • sail round.' circum-scribe

draw a line round.' com (col, con, cor, co), with,'' together,'' up.' com-pose

place together.' col-lect

gather together,' gather up.' cor-roborate

strengthen up.' cor-rode

eat up.' co-operate

work together.' Obs. This preposition is con before consonants and co before

vowels : con-form, con-sider, con-sist ; but co-equal, co-eternal. Many persons write co-temporary' for

con-temporary;' but Richard Bentley said that he could not co-gratulato such persons on the co-position

of their words.' contra, 'against.'

contra-dict, 'speak against,''gain-say,' where gain

contains the root of a-gain, a-gainst.

contra-vene, come against.' contro, "against.'

contro-vert, 'turn against.' 495. de, down,'" forth,'out,' at.'

de-scend climb down,' come down.'
de-ject

cast down.'
de-monstrate show forth,' point out.'
de-ride

laugh at.
de-spise

look down upon.' dis- (dif, di), “in different directions, apart,' away,' • from.'

dis-solve loosen away.'
dis-join

separate.'
dis-arm take weapon away.'
dif-fuse

scatter apart.'
dif- fer

carry in different directions.' di-verge

turn aside. ex (ef, e), 'out of," forth.'

exc-port

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carry out

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urge on.

ex-pose

set forth.' e-merge

come forth.' e-nuntiate tell out.'

e-migrate wander forth.' 496. in (im, il, in, and in French derivatives em, en), 'in, into,upon. in-volve

'roll in.'
in-duct

lead in.'
in-spire breathe into.
il-lude

play upon.
il-lustrate throw light upon.'
im-pel
im-pose put upon.'
im-port
ir-radiate shine into.'
ir-rigate pour water upon.'
em-brace

put arms round.'
en-vy

look upon' i.e. with an evil eye.) inter (intel), 'between,'' among.'

inter-cede pass between,''mediate.'
inter-cept come between.'

inter-change change among. This preposition conveys the idea of opposition or obstruction in the words inter-cept, inter-dict (for-bid'), inter-fere.

In French derivatives it takes the form enter, as enter-prise an undertaking.' intro, “into,'' in.'

introduce, lead in.'

carry into.'

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block up.'

OC-cur

497. ob (oc, of, op), 'against,'' up,'' upon,'' towards.'

ob-ject cast against,'' urge against.'
ob-struct

'run towards.'
of-fend strike against.
of-fer

'bring towards.' op-pose

put against.' op-press press upon.'

ор-риуп fight against.' 498. per, through.' per-mit

let go through. per-vade pass through

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'put off.

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Obs.—The particle per in composition has sometimes a mean

ing akin to that of our for-, German ver-, as in the Latin per-do, 'for-do,' i.e. destroy;' so too, Latin per-juro, 'for-swear;' so, perhaps, per-vert, “turn away

from (the right).' post, 'after,' off.'

post-date after-date,' 'date-after.'

post-pone prce (pre), 'before.' pre-cede, 'go before,' not fore-go,' which is

more strictly for-go,''go without.' pre-clude "shut out beforehand.' pre-dict

· fore-tell.' pre-fer

put before. pre-tend

stretch forward' (for the purpose of

concealment). pro (por), 'for,' 'forth,' before.'

pro-ject cast forward.'

por-tend ' fore-stretch,' 'fore-token.' This preposition appears in French as pour, whence we have pour-tray, now written por-tray, 'draw forth,' • draw in outline ;' pur-pose of the same meaning as pro-pose, set forth' (as an object), 'design.' 499. re (red), 'back,' again.'

run back.' re-ject

throw back.'

'move back,''take away' red-eem buy back,'' buy again.' retro, ' back,'' backward.'

retro-grade 'step backward.' se, apart.' se-cede

‘go apart,'" withdraw.' se-parate put apart.' 500. sub (suc, suf, sug, sup, sur, sus, su[s]), "under,'' up,' 'over,' after, sub-due

bring under.'

cast under.' sub-mit

put under.' SUC-ceed

come up,'' prosper.'

run up,''help.' suf- fic

fix under,' put after.' suf-fuse

spread over.'

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re-cur

re-move

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sub-ject

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Suc-cour

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