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carry up: sup-port

• bear up.'

" lay under,'" lay down.'
sur-render deliver up.'

hang up.'

hold up. su(s)-spect . look under.' super, 'over,' on.' super-add

add on.' super-scribe write over.'

super-vene. 'come on,' come in addition.' The French sur is derived from super, and appears in sur-prise

"take suddenly.' sur-vene

come in addition,' sur-vey

oversee.' sur-vive

live after.' trans (tra), 'over,' across.' trans-mit

send over.' trans-mute • change over.' tra-duce

• lead over,' 'bring before the

public,''expose to ridicule,' i calumniate.'

501. It sometimes happens, that while a verb is compounded with a Latin preposition, an English preposition follows the verb. As a general rule, the two prepositions should agree in meaning; the Latin derivative should be followed by a preposition corresponding to that which is used in composition : as 'ad-apt to,' af-fix to,' di-vert from,' ex-pel from (or out of ).'

But sometimes the meaning of the compound verb overrides the original force of the preposition. Take the verb differ. When we say 'dif-fer from,' the agreement between dis (dif)

in various directions and from is sufficiently close. But we also say 'dif-fer with' where the prepositions do not agree. The explanation is this: dif-fer from' is equivalent to contend with;' and so, by extension of meaning, we say differ with.' In this case, the meaning of the verb 'differ' overrides the force of the prefix dif, and custom prevails against etymology.

502. But the misuse of prepositions is not confined to those which follow compound verbs. Dr. Lowth (English Grammar, p. 138) has collected the following examples of improper usage:

Your character, which I or any other writer may now

value ourselves by drawing. [upon.-Swift, Letter

on the English Tongue. You have bestowed your favours to the most deserving

persons. [upon.]-Ibid. Upon such occasions as fell into their cognisance. [under.]

-Id. Contest and Dissensions, &c., c. iii. That variety of factions into which we are still engaged.

[in.]Ibid. c. v. To restore myself into the good graces of my fair critics.

[to.]-Dryden, Preface to Aurungzebe. Accused the ministers for betraying the Dutch. [of]

Swift, Four Last Years of the Queen. [It is possible to defend this sentence, thus: “Accused the

ministers, on account of their having betrayed the

Ovid, whom you accuse for luxuriancy of verse. [of]-

Dryden, On Dramatic Poesy.
Something like this has been reproached to Tacitus.

-Bolingbroke, On History, vol. i. p. 136.
[It would be necessary to give this sentence a complete

turn: "Tacitus has been reproached with something

like this.'] He was made much on at Argos. [of.] He is so resolved of going to the Persian court. [on.]

Bentley, Dissertation on Themistocles's Epistles, sect. iii. Neither the one nor the other shall make me swerve out

of the path, which I have traced to myself. [from. 1

Bolingbroke, Letter to Wyndham, p. 242.
If poesy can prevail upon force. Cover.]—Addison, Travels,

p. 62.
[We prevail upon persons, but over physical forces.]
I do likewise dissent with the examiner.-Id. Whig

Examiner, No. 1. [We differ with' but dissent from.'] Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a [The original has diüliGovtes, i.e. straining out a gaat,'

camel.--Matthew xxiii. 24.

taking a gnat out of liquor by straining.'] It was perfectly in compliance to some persons, for whose

opinion I have great deference. [with.]~Swift, Pre

face to Temple's Memoirs. The wisest Princes need not think it any diminution to

their greatness, or derogation to their sufficiency, to

rely upon counsel. [of] [from.]-Bacon, Essay xx. 503. In the use of prepositions after verbs, much depends. on usage :

We'go beyond,' and 'rise above.'
We except from censure,' and state exceptions to a

We'inquire of a person,' and at a place.'
We are dependent on' and 'independent of.'.
See Angus, Handbook of the English Tongue, $ 590,

where the student will find a list of verbs followed by
the prepositions commonly used after them.


The ordering of exercises is matter of great consequence

to hurt or help; for, as is well observed by Cicero, men in exercising their faculties, if they be not well advised, do exercise their faults and get ill habits as

well as good.'Bacon. In all studies, much depends upon judicious exercise; for, however useful theory may be in its proper place, the main thing is practice.

In grammar, the chief end is accuracy; and slovenly exercises do more harm than good. Scrupulous attention should be paid to the handwriting, and the spelling. Boys are apt to despise these things as trifles; but they have to learn, that attention to trifles often makes all the difference between a man who succeeds in life, and a man who fails.

In the present day, there is too much hurry; and even boys are ready w account for their negligence by saying that they had not time. This is an idle excuse. No portion of their time can be so well spent as that which is occupied in acquiring habits of neatness, and accuracy.

In grammatical analysis, two methods may be adopted. The first is the method of construing; that is, to begin by selecting the principal words in a sentence, as, the subjectnominative' and the predicate-verb;' then to subjoin the qualifications of each; and then, to add the dependent words of the sentence. For example:

Him the Almighty Power
Hurled flaming.
Subject-nominative .

Predicate-verb . .

Qualifications of the i

Subject-nominative ) . . . Almighty
Objective . .

him Qualification of the Objective . flaming. The second method is to take the words as they stand, and to explain each in its order : as, Him , . .

Objective. the . . . . . Qualification of the Sub

ject-nominative' Power.'


Almighty · ·

Qualification of the Sub

ject-nominative' Power.' Power

Subject-nominative. hurled .

Predicate-verb. flaming. .

Qualification of the 06

jective him.' In oral instruction both methods may be employed. But in written analysis, I incline to the second method. For this reason, that the mind is less liable to be distracted by moving from one part of the sentence to another; and there is less danger of omitting any word. In this way, we begin at the beginning, and go on steadily to the end. However, on this point, there may be difference of opinion; some may prefer the one way, and some the other.

For a while, I hesitated whether to use abbreviations, as, subj. nom., pred. verb, or to discard them. At first, there is a temptation to save time and trouble. But in looking over an exercise, the analysis written in full is much more pleasing to the eye, than one in which abbreviations are used. And as there is an artistic pleasure in beholding a well-written exercise, I conclude that it is better to discard abbreviations.

In selecting examples, I have introduced several of those given by Dr. Morell and Mr. Mason, in order to exhibit the difference of the systems. The reader may compare the analysis here proposed with that of the writers mentioned : Morell, Grammar of the English Language, pp. 80–103; Mason, English Grammar, pp. 122–143.

I. EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES. 1. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. The Definite article, qualifying the subject-nomi

native curfew. curfew Noun, Subject-nominative. tolls

Predicate-verb. the

Definite article, qualifying the Objective

knell.' knell Noun, Objective. of parting Prepositional phrase, qualifying the Objective

knell: consisting of a preposition of,' a participle 'parting,' a noun day.'

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