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sun

2. The sun from the western horizon extended his

golden wand o'er the landscape. The

Definite article, qualifying the subject-nomi

native 'sun.'

Noun, Subject-nominative. from the Adverbial phrase, qualifying the predicate

western verb extended,' and denoting the place

horizon whence. extended Predicate-verb. his

Pronoun possessive (or in the possessive case),

qualifying the Objective wand.' golden Adjective, qualifying the Objective wand.' wand Noun, Objective. o'er the land- Adverbial phrase, qualifying the predicatescape. verb "extended, and denoting the place

where. Obs.--The phrase 'of parting day'is called a prepositional

phrase ; whereas from the western horizon' and 'o'er the landscape' are termed adverbial phrases. In one sense they are all prepositional phrases; but as the first qualifies a noun, while the second and third qualify a verb, it is better to distinguish the latter as

adverbial phrases. 3. The doctor prescribed his patient a receipt. The

Definite article, qualifying the subject-nomi

native doctor.' doctor Noun, Subject-nominative. prescribed Predicate-verb. his

Pronoun in the possessive case, qualifying the

Secondary Objective patient.' patient Noun, Secondary Objective [to or for his

patient]. Indefinite article, qualifying the Primary Ob

jective receipt. receipt. Noun, Primary Objective immediately de

pendent upon the predicate-verb pre

scribed'). 4. He

gave him a letter to read. He

Pronoun, Subject-nominative. gave

Predicate-verb. him

Pronoun, Secondary Objective.
Indefinite article, qualifying the Primary Ob-

jective ‘letter.
letter Noun, Primary Objective.

a

a

saw

a

6

man

man

to read. Gerund, qualifying the predicate-verb gave.'

Here to is a true preposition signifying'in order to :' i. e. 'for reading,' or in older

English, 'for to read.'
5. I saw a man with a sword.
I

Pronoun, Subject-nominative.
Predicate-verb.
Indefinite article, qualifying the Objective

man.'

Noun. Objective. with a sword. Prepositional phrase, qualifying the Objective

'man.' 6. He killed a man with a sword. He

Pronoun, Subject-nominative. killed

Predicate-verb.
Indefinite article, qualifying the Objective

'man.'

Noun, Objective. with a sword. Adverbial phrase, qualifying the predicate

verb killed,' and denoting the instrument

whereby. 068.-In Example 5, 'with a sword' is a prepositional phrase,

qualifying the noun 'man;' but in Example 6, with a sword' is an adverbial phrase, qualifying the verb

• killed.' 7. Having abandoned their fortifications, the troops of

the Emperor began a disastrous retreat. Having aban- Participle, qualifying the predicate-verb doned

began.' their

Pronoun possessive, or in the possessive case,

qualifying the Objective fortifications.' fortifications Noun, objective dependent upon the parti

ciple having abandoned.' the

Definite article, qualifying the subject-nomi

native 'troops.' troops

Noun, Subject-nominative. of the Em.

Prepositional phrase, qualifying the Subjectperor

nominative 'troops. began

Predicate-verb.
Indefinite article, qualifying the Objective

retreat.'

a

disastrous Adjective, qualifying the Objective é retreat.'
retreat

Noun, Objective.
Obs. 1.-Mr. Mason considers having abandoned their fortifi.

cations' a participial phrase qualifying the subject-
nominative troops,' or, as he terms it, an 'attributive
adjunct of the subject.' I believe that Dr. Morell

would agree with Mr. Mason. No doubt in point of concord, the participle ‘having

abandoned' agrees with the noun troops ;' but in point of signification, the participle qualifies the predicate-verb began. For the meaning is that the troops, when they had abandoned the fortifications, began a retreat. In other words, the troops aban. doned the fortifications, and then began a retreat. The qualification affects the act, and not the troops themselves. Therefore I am disposed to think that

the participle must be held to qualify the verb. Obs. 2.-We may take their as a possessive pronoun, or as the

possessive (genitive) case of the personal. 8. The enraged officer struck the unfortunate man dead

on the spot with a single blow of his sword. The

Definite article, qualifying the Subject-nomi

native officer.' enraged Participle or Adjective, qualifying the Sub

ject-nominative officer.' officer

Noun, Subject-nominative. struck

Predicate-verb. the

Definite article, qualifying the Primary Ob

jective 'man. unfortunate Adjective, qualifying the Primary Objective

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man

Noun, Primary Objective. dead

Participle or Adjective, Complement-objec

tive. on the spot Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicate

verb struck, and denoting the place

where. with a single Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicate

blow of his verb struck,' and denoting the means or sword

instrument whereby. 9. A man of weak health is incapable of the thorough

enjoyment of life. А

Indefinite article, qualifying the Subject

nominative 'man.'

man

Noun, Substantive-nominative. of weak health Prepositional phrase, qualifying the Subject

nominative ‘man. is

Predicate-verb. incapable Adjective, Predicate-nominative. of the thorough Prepositional phrase, dependent upon the

enjoyment of adjective 'incapable.' Or perhaps this life

might be taken as an Adverbial phrase,
qualifying the Predicate-nominative in-
capable. -See Mason, English Grammar,

§ 512.
10. Now the bright morning star, day's harbinger,

Comes dancing from the East.
Now

Adverb, qualifying the Predicate-verb

comes.' the

Definite article, qualifying the Subject-nomi

native star.' bright

Adjective, qualifying the Subject-nominative

star.' morning Noun, used adjectively, qualifying the Sub

ject-nominative star.' star

Noun, Subject- nominative. day's

Noun in the possessive case, qualifying the

noun in apposition 'harbinger.' harbinger Noun in apposition, qualifying the Subject

nominative star.'

Predicate verb. dancing Participle, Predicate-nominative. from the East. Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicate

verb comes, and denoting the place

whence.
11.

Him the Almighty Power
Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal sky
With hideous ruin and combustion, down

To bottomless perdition.
Him

Pronoun, Objective. the

Definite article, qualifying the Subject-nomi

native Power.' Almighty Adjective, qualifying the Subject-nominative

'Power." Power

Noun, Subject-nominative. hurled

Predicate-verb.

comes

6

headlong Adjective, qualifying the Objective him.' flaming

Participle, qualifying the Objective ‘him.' from the ether- Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicateeal sky

verb ' hurled,' and denoting the place

whence. with hideous Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicate

ruin and verb 'hurled,' and denoting the attendant

combustion circumstances. down

Adverb, qualifying the Predicate-verb hurled,"

and denoting the direction whither. [Or, down may be taken as a preposition entering into composition with the verb hurled :'

"hurled down'=Latin de-jecit. to bottomless Adverbial phrase, qualifying the Predicateperdition. verb hurled,' and denoting the place

whither, or the condition to which. Cases of difficulty are constantly arising in analysis; and in some instances, grammarians of equal ability might entertain different opinions. Hence, we should guard against hasty conclusions; we should proceed with caution, and learn to suspend judgment, when a case is not clear. It follows, also, that if a boy bas done his best, and yet fails to understand the construction of a sentence, he ought not to be discouraged. On the contrary, if he has discovered a real difficulty, that is a sign of growing intelligence. Let us consider a few

doubtful cases. 12. The moon threw its silvery light upon the lake. The words upon the lake' might be taken as an adverbial phrase qualifying the predicate-verb 'threw ;' or, possibly, i the lake' might be taken as a secondary objective dependent upon the compound verb 'threw upon.' 13. He recommended him to use great moderation in his

diet. We might consider to use as an infinitive employed substantively, and as the Primary Objective dependent upon the Predicate-verb recommended. In that case 'him' must be the Secondary Objective, because the use was recommended to him.' But it is just possible that 'him' may be the subject-accusative before the infinitive 'to use,' equivalent to · He recommended that he should use.' In any case, moderation' is an objective dependent upon the verb 'to use.'

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