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Reason and Conclusion, (7) Action (or State) and Result, (8) Purpose and End, (9) Condition and Consequence, (10) Concession and Declaration.

If we arrange these, as they would stand, if each clause were introduced by an appropriate particle, we have :

1.

II. 1. Time.

When.

then.
2. Place.

Where . there.
Whence

thence.

Whither thither,
3. Manner
4. Degree (equality) As

The

the. (inequality)

than. 5. Cause and Effect

Because therefore. 6. Reason and Conclusion Because therefore, 7. Action (or State) and

(SO

that.
Result
8. Purpose and End

So

that. 9. Condition and Conse

If

then. 10. Concession and Decla

Though ration

.

yet.

1. Time. 57. In the older forms, we find when answered by then; as, When Israel was a child, then I loved him.

Hosea, xi. 1. When I would have healed Israel, then the iniquity of Ephraim was discovered.

Id. vii. 1. The second co-ordinate has a tendency to become the Principal Clause, and the particle then is omitted; as, When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel.

Hosea, xiii. 1. The next step is, that the Principal Clause takes the first place; as,

Every one listens, when he speaks.
I was glad when he had finished.
He read while I wrote.

He punished the boy, whenever he did wrong. The particle when, which introduces the Accessory Clause, is variously termed a relative adverb,' a 'conjunctive

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adverb,' an 'adverbial conjunction,' or a continuative conjunction.'

58. The clauses introduced by these particles are commonly termed adverbial clauses, because they are supposed to stand in the place of single adverbs, and to be used in qualifying verbs, adjectives, or adverbs.

Mr. Mason maintains (English Grammar, § 424), that the relative adverbs have a double force. He says: “It must be observed that the relative adverbs, which introduce such clauses, not only connect the adverbial clause with the principal clause, but themselves qualify the verb of the clause, which they introduce.'

For example, in the sentence, 'Every one listens, when he speaks,' the adverbial clause when he speaks' is said to qualify the verb ' listens'; the particle 'when connects the adverbial clause with the principal clause every one listens,' and itself qualifies the verb 'speaks' in the subordinate sentence when he speaks.'

This explanation is far from satisfactory, and it seems laboured. It is more simple to deduce the sentence from the co-ordinate form:

When he speaks, then every one listens.
When he speaks, every one listens.

Every one listens, when he speaks. 59. Other connective particles used in reference to time are, whenever, as, as soon as, now that, ere, while, whilst, until, as often as.

As he came, they went away.
Now that

you

have come, we will go.
He stood there, whilst the house was on fire.
He remained, until the work was done.

He writes, as often as he wants money. The words before and after are originally prepositions; but they were used as connective particles in the phrases ' before that,' and ' after that.'

Before that certain came from James, he did eat with
the Gentiles.

Galatians, ii. 12.
Surely, after that I was turned, I repented; and

after that I was instructed, I smote upon my
thigh.

Jeremiah, xxxi. 19.
In reading such a passage, it is a mistake to lay any em-

phasis upon that; the accent should fall upon before,'' after;' and that'should be lightly passed over as an enclitic.

2. Place. 60. We find examples of the old form where ... there : as, Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.

Matthew vi. 21. If we compare the Anglo-Saxon version of this passage, we observe that the clauses are both introduced by thæer, 'there':

thær thin gold-hord ys, thær ys thin heorte,
there thy gold-hoard is, there is thine heart,

where thy treasure is, there is thy heart. In modern English there' is generally omitted. The second sentence becomes the Principal Clause, frequently taking the first place; and the first sentence becomes an Accessory Clause, introduced by where, wherever, whither, whence : as,

I will remain, where you are.
Whither thou goest, I will go.

He returned, whence he came.
Obs.—Instead of whence, some writers say from whence; to

which an objection has been raised, that whence'
means 'from which place;' and that therefore in
* from whence' the word from is superfluous.

3. Manner. 61. Co-ordinate sentences indicating manner or resemblance are introduced by the particles as ... so, respectively : thus,

As the hart panteth after the water brooks,
So panteth my soul after thee, O God.

Psalm xlii. 1. This is the true explanation of such a Compound Sentence; namely, that it comprises two co-ordinate sentences. An attempt to regard one of the clauses as a Principal Sentence, and the other as a Subordinate Sentence, is to introduce needless perplexity. We may also remark, both here and elsewhere, that in the second clause, there is a tendency to invert the order of words; to put the predicate-verb before the subjectnominative.

The introductory particle so is often omitted ; then the sentence, before which it stood, is regarded as a Principal Clause, and frequently occupies the first place; thus,

He succeeds, as his father succeeded before him.

He did as he was told.
It turned out as I expected.

As I hear, I judge. 62. Mr. Mason remarks, (English Grammar, $ 429,) 'Here the dependent clauses qualify the verbs of the main sentence, while the adverb as refers to the manner of the action spoken of in the dependent clauses themselves. It must be remembered, however, that clauses beginning with as are generally elliptical. At full length the above would be,

He did as he was told to do, where as indicates the idea of manner with relation to the verb to do.

It turned out as I expected it to turn out, where as indicates the idea of manner with relation to the verb to turn out.'

With all deference to Mr. Mason, this seems to be laboured. A comparison of the co-ordinate forms would furnish a simpler explanation :

As he was told, so he did.

As I expected, so it turned out. We do not find co-ordinate sentences in the form as But it frequently happens that, in a Principal Clause, some word or phrase is qualified by as; and then the Accessory Clause follows, introduced by as : for example,

He is as merciful, as he is strong. The particle so is likewise used to qualify a word or phrase : thus,

He is not so wise, as he seems. The words such and same are answered by as ; for example, She wrote such a letter, as might have been expected

from her.

They are the same, as ever they were. Hence some have contended that as, in these constructions, is a pronoun; but this has probably arisen from confounding relative adverbs with relative pronouns. A relative is not necessarily a pronoun.

4. Degree. 63. In sentences indicating Degree or Proportion, we must distinguish the relations of equality and inequality.

as.

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learn more,

in that propor

In the relation of equality, the co-ordinate forms are expressed by as

30. the

the. The use of as so corresponds with the usage in sentences relating to Manner, and need not be discussed further.

The particle the, which must not be confounded with the definite article, has come down to us from the Anglo-Saxon thy, the ablative case of the demonstrative pronoun, se, seo, thot.

The sentences introduced by the are pure co-ordinates, and are a remnant of the old language : for example,

The more you learn, the wiser you will become. This means,

' in proportion as you tion you

will become wiser.' In § 270 of his English Grammar, Mr. Mason suspects the truth; but in § 433, he gives the following exposition :

6The more I learn, the more I wish to learn." Here the adverbial sentence, the more I learn," qualifies the demonstrative adverb the, which in its turn qualifies the adverb more in the principal clause ; the word more in the adverbial clause, being itself qualified by the relative adverb the.'

The explanation that the sentences are co-ordinate is simpler, and more in accordance with the older forms of the language.

64. In the relation of inequality, accessory clauses are introduced by than.

In older English, down to the time of Shakespeare, then was constantly used in these constructions, where we now employ than. Both the words are derived from the Anglo-Saxon thonne or thænne; but in our modern language we restrict than to the purposes of comparison. In King Lear, i. 4, the First Folio reads thus :

Marke, nuncle;
Haue more then thou showest,
Speak less then thou knowest,
Lend less then thou owest,
Ride more then thou goest,

Learn more then thou trowest.
The modern copies read than for then.

Dr. Bosworth, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, distinguishes thonne (adverb) then,' from thonne (conjunction) * than’; but this distinction appears to be quite arbitrary.

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