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We shall compare a few instances of the use of thonne in Anglo-Saxon, translating it by the word then':

fortham Fæder is mara thonne ic.
for-that Father is more then I.

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for my

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Father is greater than I.'

John xiv. 28.
thes ys merra thonne thet templ.

this is more then the temple.
in this place is (one) greater than the temple.'

Matthew xii. 6.
thes ys mara thonne Salomon.

this is more then Solomon.
a greater than Solomon is here.'-Id. xii. 42.

Se the. lufað fæder oðde modor ma
he that loveth father or mother more
thonne me, nys he me wyrthe.

then me, ne-is he of-me worthy.
" he that loveth father or mother more than me, is not

worthy of me.'-Id. x, 37. The construction seems to have arisen from the order of succession : for example :

this (one) is greater;

then Solomon [is great]. In like manner :

he that loveth father or mother more ; then

[he loveth] me. This appears to have been the origin of the construction ; but afterwards the use of then may have been extended to cases where this explanation is not obvious.

65. Caution. In using “than,' it is very necessary to bear in mind the construction of both clauses, otherwise errors or confusion may ensue. For example, both these sentences are correct:

1. She loves him more than I :

2. She loves him more than me: but they bear very different significations. The first means, • she loves him more than I love him ;' the second, she loves him more than she loves me.'

5. Cause and Effect. 66. Co-ordinate Sentences, denoting cause and effect, are introduced respectively by the words because and therefore. These are originally by-cause' and there-for,' namely, ? for that (cause). The prepositions for and fore are constantly confounded. In the full form, then, we have,

Cause. Because--it froze last night.

Effect. Therefore the pools are covered with ice. But, on this subject, a seeming inconsistency is observable. When because' is omitted, and we say, It froze last night; therefore, the pools are covered with ice; the grammarians maintain that the two clauses are still coordinate sentences, connected by the adverb therefore. But when therefore' is omitted, and we say,

The pools are covered with ice, because it froze last night, we are told that “The pools are covered with ice' is now a Principal Sentence; and that the words “it froze last night, constitute a Subordinate Sentence, attached by the conjunction because.'

At first sight, the distinction is not obvious, nor is the difference between adverb and conjunction very clear. Still the distinction may exist, and the following point deserves notice :

In the sentence “It froze last night; therefore the pools are covered with ice,' we may insert the conjunction and between the clauses; thus,

It froze last night, and therefore the pools are covered

with ice.. Now here we have two co-ordinate sentences coupled by the conjunction and

But in the sentence, ' The pools are covered with ice, because it froze last night,' the two clauses are so intimately bound up together, that we cannot insert a conjunction between them. If the two clauses are not co-ordinates, we must expound one as the Principal, and the other as the Accessory Clause.

At all events, it is objectionable to discuss these forms in different parts of the grammar; the one under the head of Coordinate Sentences, the other under the head of Principal and Accessory. It is very important that the pupil should acquire precise notions upon the relation of Cause and Effect. For this purpose, the whole subject should be brought under one view. Younger pupils should remember, that we may first assign

the cause, and then state the effect; or we niay first state the effect, and then assign the cause. For example, we may say,

The season was dry, therefore the crops failed, or, The crops failed, because the season was dry. Again, The string is pulled too tight, therefore it breaks, or, The string breaks, because it is pulled too tight.

6. Reason and Conclusion. 67. Sentences which express reason and conclusion are called illative, that is, 'inferential,' because they are used in drawing 'inferences.'

It is often a source of perplexity that the illative conjunctions' because and therefore are employed to denote reason and conclusion, as well as cause and effect. 1. Cause and Effect :

The ground is rich, and therefore the trees flourish,

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The trees flourish, because the ground is rich. 2. Reason and Conclusion :

The trees are flourishing, and therefore the ground is rich, or, The ground is rich, because the trees are flourishing.

See Whately, Logic, I. 2. The difficulty vanishes, if, in stating the Reason and Conclusion, we substitute 'by-reason ’ for because, and thereby (we know that)' for therefore.

We shall state the sentences as co-ordinates. 1. Cause and Effect :

Because . the ground is rich,

Therefore the trees flourish. 2. Reason and Conclusion:

By-reason .. the trees are flourishing,

Thereby (we know that) ... the ground is rich. Some writers have used the phrase "by reason' instead of because,' where a reason or motive is signified. Thus we read of Sir Roger de Coverley :

It is said, he keeps himself a bachelor, by reason he was crossed in love by a perverse beautiful widow of the next county to him.

Spectator, No. 2.

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However, this form is not usual; and no substitute has been provided in corresponding cases for therefore.'

In ordinary argument it is very common to state the conclusion first, and then to assign the reason or reasons: thus,

Emulation is useful, because it promotes diligence.

Emulation is injurious, because it excites envy. Instead of because, other particles are often used to introduce the reason : for, as, since, or the more formal whereas.

7. Action (or State) and Result. 68. A sentence expressing Action and Result differs from one denoting Cause and Effect, just as a mere narrative differs from an argumentative statement. The simplest form exhibits two co-ordinate sentences : as,

He ran fast, and he was out of breath.

If we say,

He ran fast, and so he was out of breath, the word 80 occupies a place analogous to therefore in a formal argument. But, in our view, the sentences are still coordinate. If, however, we proceed a step further, and say,

He ran so fast, that he was out of breath, we must consider the first clause as a Principal, and the second as an Accessory Clause.

In analysing such a sentence, the followers of Becker would regard so as an adverb' qualifying the adverb “fast;' and

that he was out of breath,' as an adverb-clause modifying the adverb so.

The following method, however, may be worthy of consideration :He ran

fast, Principal Clause. that

Adverbial (or Conjunctional)

phrase introducing the

Accessory Clause. he was out of breath, Accessory Clause.





8. Purpose and End. 69. The sentences denoting this relation had passed in Anglo-Saxon into the advanced stage; and the Accessory Clause was introduced by thæt alone : as,

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• I spoke

that ye

Pas thing ic eow sæde, thæt ge habbon sibbe on me. these things I to-you said, that ye may-have peace in me.

John xvi. 33. The Vulgate reads, 'Hæc locutus sum vobis, ut in me pacem habeatis.' The Anglo-Saxon made no distinction between the past tense said' and the present-perfect' have said.' But our English version is wrong; These things I have spoken unto you, that in me ye might have peace. We may read

. . that ye might,' or 'I have spoken may;' but we must not mix the two constructions.

Instead of an Accessory Clause introduced by that, we may have a gerund with to: thus, for

He labours, that he may become rich:

He studies, that he may improve: we may say

He labours to become rich :

He studies to improve: where to denotes in order to,' 'for the purpose to;' and therefore to become,'' to improve,' are not simple infinitives, but what we call the gerund with to.' The Latin scholar will see at once, that 'to become,'' to improve,' could not be rendered in Latin by infinitives.

Where the subordinate sentence involves a negative, we often find lest as equivalent to that ... not: as,

He labours, lest he should be dependent, or,

He labours, that he may not be dependent.

9. Condition and Consequence. 70. Grammarians have dwelt at considerable length on this relation ; and some of the terms which they employ present difficulty to the learner.

Mr. Mason says, (English Grammar, § 440,) 'In adverbial clauses of condition, the principal sentence is called the consequent clause (i.e. the clause which expresses the consequence); the subordinate sentence is called the hypothetical clause (i.e. the clause which expresses the hypothesis, supposition or concession).'

The Greek hypothesis is equivalent to the Latin suppositio, and literally means the 'groundwork' or foundation, hence

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