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of his effeminacy, and sat down also upon the grass. On this occasion the Persian pride was seen to pay homage to the Spartan modesty and simplicity.

After reciprocal salutations, Pharnabasus spoke to this effect : that he had served the Lacedemonians in the Peloponnesian war to the utmost of his power, fought several battles for them, and supported their naval army, without giving any room to reproach him with fraud or treachery, as Tissaphernes had done : that he was surprised at their coming to attack him in his government : burning the towns, cutting down the trees, and laying waste the whole country : that if it was the custom with the Greeks, who made profession of honour and virtue, to treat their friends and bene. factors in such a manner, he did not know what they might mean by just and equitable. These complaints were not entirely without foundation, and were uttered with a modest, but pathetic air and tone of voice. The Spartans, who attended Agesilaus, not seeing how they could be answered, cast down their eyes, and kept a profound silence. Agesilaus, who observ. ed it, replied almost in these terms : “ Lord Pharnabasus, you are not ignorant, that war often arms the best friends against each other for the defence of their country. Whilst we were such to the king your master, we treated him as a friend ; but as we are become his enemies, we make open war against him, as it is just we should, and endeavour to hurt him by what we act against you. However, from the instant you shall think fit to throw off the yoke of bondage, and prefer being called the friend and ally of the Grecks, before the name of the king of Persia's slave, you may reckon that all the

troops you see before your eyes, our arms, our ships, our persons, to the last man of us, are only here to defend your possessions, and secure your liberty, which of all blessings is the most precious and desirable.”

Pharnabasus answered, that if the king sent another general in his place, and subjected him to the new comer, he should very willingly accept his offer ; that otherwise he would not depart from the faith he had sworn to him, nor quit his service. Agesilaus then taking him by the hand, and rising with him, replied, “ That it were the pleasure of the gods, lord Pharnabasus, with such noble sentiments, that you were rather our friend than our enemy.” He promised to withdraw from his government, and never return into it, whilst he could subsist elsewhere.






AGESILAUS had been two years at the head of the army, and had already made the most remote provinces of Asia tremble at his name, and resound with the fame of his great wisdom, disinterestedness, moderation, intrepid valor in the greatest dangers, and invincible patience in supporting the rudest fatigues. Of so many thousand soldiers under his command, not one was worse provided, or lay harder than himself. He was so indifferent as to heat or

• A.M. 3610. Ant. J. C. 394. Plut. in Agesil. p. 603, 604. Xen. in Agesil. p. 657. VOL. 3,


cold, that he seemed 6 formed only to support the most rigorous seasons, and such as it pleased God to send; which are Plutarch's express words.

The most agreeable of all sights to the Greeks settled in Asia, was to see the lieutenants of the great king, his satraps, and other great lords, who were formerly so haughty and untractable, soften their note in the presence of a man meanly clad, and at his single word, however short and laconic, change their language and conduct, and in a manner transform themselves into different creatures. Deputies from all parts were sent by the people to form alliances with him, and his army increased every day by the troops of the barbarians that came to join him.

All Asia was already in motion, and most of the provinces ready to revolt. Agesilaus had already re. stored order and tranquillity in all the cities, had reinstated them in the possession of their liberty under reasonable modifications, not only without shedding of blood, but without even banishing a single person. Not content with such a progress, he had formed the design of attacking the king of Persia in the heart of his dominions, to put him in fear for his own person, and the tranquillity he enjoyed in Ecbatana and Susa, and to find him so much business, as should make it impracticable for him to embroil all Greece from his cabinet, by corrupting the orators and persons of greatest authority in its cities with his presents.

· Tithraustes, who commanded for the king in Asia, seeing the tendency of Agesilaus's designs, and desir

6 Ωσπες μονος αει χgησθαι ταις υπο θεα κεκραμεναις ωραις πεφυκας. . Xenoph. Hist. Græc. 1. iii. p. 502-507. Plut. in Lysand. p. 449—451.

ing to prevent their effects, had sent Timocrates of Rhodes into Greece, with great sums of money to corrupt the principal persons in the cities, and by their means occasion defections against Sparta. He knew that the haughtiness of the Lacedemonians, for all their generals did not resemble Agesilaus, and the imperious manner with which they treated their neighbours and allies, especially since they considered themselves as the masters of Greece, had universally disgusted the people, and excited a jealousy that waited only an occasion to break out against them. This severity of governing had a natural cause in their education. Accustomed from their infancy to obey without delay or reply, first to their tutors, and afterwards to their magistrates, they exacted a like submission from the cities in their dependence, were easily in. censed by the least opposition, and by this excessive severity rendered themselves insupportable.

Tithraustes therefore did not find it difficult to draw off the allies from their party. Thebes, Argos, Corinth, entered into his measures : the deputy did not go to Athens. These three cities, influenced by those that governed them, made a league against the Lacedemonians, who on their side prepared vigorously for the war,

The Thebans at the same time sent deputies to the Athenians, to implore their aid, and that they would enter into the alliance. The deputies, after having slightly passed over their ancient di: visions, insisted strongly upon the considerable service they had rendered Athens, in refusing to join its enemies when they endeavoured its final destruction. They represented to them the favourable opportunity that offered for reinstating themselves in their ancient power, and to deprive the Lacedemonians of the empire of Greece. That all the allies of Sparta, either without or within Greece, were weary of their severe and unjust sway, and waited only the signal to revolt. That the moment the Athenians should declare them. selves, all the cities would rouse up at the sound of their arms, and that the king of Persia, who had sworn the ruin of Sparta, would aid them with all his forces both by sea and land,

Thrasybulus, whom the Thebans had supplied with arms and money, when he undertook the reestablishment of the Athenian liberty, seconded their de. mand with great vigor, and the aid was unanimously resolved. The Lacedemonians on their side took the field without loss of time, and entered Phocis. Lysander wrote to Pausanias, who commanded one of the two armies, to give him notice to march early the next day to Haliartus, which he designed to besiege, and that he should be there himself at sunrise. The letter was intercepted. Lysander, after having wait. ed his coming up a great while, was obliged to engage, and was killed in the battle. Pausanias received this bad news on his way ; but however continued his march to Haliartus, and called a council of war to consider upon a second battle. He did not think it consistent with prudence to hazard it, and contented himself with making a truce, to remove the bodies of those who had fallen in the fornier fight. Upon his return to Sparta, he was cited to give an account of his conduct, and refusing to appear, was condemned to die. But he avoided the execution of that

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