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ings a view of surpassing grandeur is had, is an age requiring, besides mental power and with Mount Tacoma in the distance. Tour- acuteness of thinking, great versatility and ists who have travelled the world over say ready adaptation to the exigencies of life. they have seen nothing to surpass it.

It must be kept in mind all the time that This college is meeting a real need in Wash- knowledge is not the highest value sought, but ington and doing the work of education for culture, the discipline of the powers, the vitalthe Presbyterian Church in that growing sec izing of the faculties and the developing of tion of our country.


The dominant thought in education and in Rev. Donald D. McKay, D.D., has recently

the preparation for active life is the supreme been elected president of the college.

importance of character. Christian education The property is valued at $155,000.00. The means the utilization of the best years of accollege has a small endowment with several quisition for founding deep and broad princilarge pledges from J. J. Hill and Andrew ples of conduct. Expertness, capacity, knowlCarnegie, the payment of which is being edge, culture—all are valueless without chardelayed until other generous givers shall acter. There can be no true success, no real have done their share toward the endowment honor, no permanent good, without nobility of fund.


The Place and Destiny of the Indian

in the Nation's Life





HETHER by best chances it takes Rudolph Blankenburg, just elected mayor

five years or by poorest chances it of Philadelphia, emigrated from Germany

takes five hundred years, the In- when twenty years of age. Throughout the dian's full “place and destiny" in the life of whole period of his career in America he has the nation-as that of every other man-is aspired to the highest type of American citionly reached when he has been developed into zenship in his associations, his business, and a useful, respected and co-equal citizen. To in every other way. This course has not in accomplish this the chains of his slavery to any sense made him disrespectful of his origin ignorance and

but has rather exconsequent

alted it. If he had lessness, and his

spent his years in subserviency to a

America in affiliarestraining,

tion with German ploiting, erratic

societies and assosystem must be re

ciations, holding moved. He must

himself aloof from be educated and

the high contact trained out of his

he did seek, he tribal past into

would not now be real useful Amer

mayor of the ican life and given

great city of the ability to use

Philadelphia, beand defend all his

cause by dividing citizen rights. He

his power to bemust be trans

come a great Amformed from

erican he could and

not have as fully bugaboo into

developed, and his producer and

German affiliations tranquilizer. He

would have cloudcannot become a

ed his Americancomplete citizen if

ism. he clings to his

Bender, an Inpast. There must

dian, pulled from be no holding on

his tribe into Amto Indianism in Brig. Gen. R. H. Pratt, U. S. A.

erican environhis transformation, for any of that will in ment, given the enabling intelligence, enters proportion reduce the quality of the citizen- base ball, sticks and reaches eminence. He ship he is capable of and continue a distrust had to have the chances, and they did not exist of him.

in the tribe. Foreigners who come to this country and If from the beginning the Indians had been through race organizations divide their ener- recognized as men, encouraged and helped by gies and patriotism by clinging to the things us to come into contact with the best of our they emigated from, are by just that much people freely, that in itself would have made the less a force as citizens.

them English-speaking, useful citizens long







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over ten million among us. He probably came from as many tribes as our Indians, but his whole past is gone; he has our language and is a citizen, free to develop and use his abilities throughout the length and breadth of the land. The shortcomings bothering him and us today are due to inadequate chances, which includes control.

ago. If that contact had been along the same high lines of liberal education and training in our industries, business and social life our best citizens receive, they would today be aligned with our best citizens. If that contact had been with our lowest population, limited by meager education and industrial training, their citizenship would be on that plane.

Twenty-four years ago Miss Frances E. Willard was my guest at Carlisle. She asked me how I could get the Indians out of their sad estate and into our American life as useful citizens. My answer can be found in her "Glimpses of Fifty Years” on page 543, and it is in part as follows: "There are about 260,000 Indians in the United States. There are 2,700 counties. I would divide them up in the proportion of about nine Indians to a county and find them homes and work among our people. That would solve the knotty problem in three years' time and there would be no more an 'Indian Question.'” Over and over again I have used this illustration. I know by a multitude of experiences, some of them with the toughest of Indian character, that this is both practical and practicable, and that all Indians placed thus in good surroundings for three years would understand and be speaking English, be sufficiently useful to enable them to locate among our people successfully, and that the barriers of language and the disabilities of prejudice and uselessness would be practically removed. I know that if properly environed they would imbibe sufficient knowledge, industry and interest in our affairs to enable them to get on as a very part of our people, and that they could from that on reasonably aspire to the best there is in our American life. If during this experience ali had educational privileges, they would come to desire more, and, under the opportunities our country opens to all aliens, they could and would go on of themselves to higher things.

Two hundred and sixty thousand Indians, by a segregating prison treatment, are still Indians, largely non-English speaking, and a burden to us in tribal masses. A national management and reservation segregations for negroes, and for each separate race of foreigners coming to this country, would inevitably have perpetuated race masses to the exclusion of all development into American citizens. There are plenty of other hindrances to Indians, but about all of them are the natural outgrowth of the race-izing system. If the purpose of government management from the beginning had been to illustrate and glorify our Declaration of Independence and our Constitution through bringing our few Indians into the full benefits these proclaim for "all men," all other influences would have aligned with that purpose, we would have been saved the national shame we are now under, and our Indians would be saved, and be much greater in numbers, rejoicing that such good men had come to lift, instruct, absorb and unite with them in developing this fair land as one common heritage.

As government management is blamable for the conditions and results, the government should entirely reverse its policy and at once help the Indian to the best of chances. The obligation of the nation to train and equip the. Indian for his place as a good citizen is all the greater because of the maladministration of the past.


When we give this treatment without limitation to foreigners, as we do in numbers yearly, vastly greater than all our Indians, it does seem that in the course of a few years we might accomplish it for the Indians. We increase our population by foreign immigration a million a year and through this process Americanize them. We forced the negro to come here, and in a measure, submit to this contact, and he has grown to

In my judgment, government money pended for civilizing the Indians and their educational and industrial development which does not build and enforce fitting and fitness of them for real substantial and useful Ameri. can citizenship is an unwarranted expenditure. As a nation we are under no obligations whatever to nurse and continue in any way their hindering, unhealthy tribal living, and should weed out all policies and schemes that have tribal segregation as a result, even though they were nurseries of the churches.


To a very large extent the churches have set the pace. The success of the churches among the Indians would all along have been vastly greater if their curriculum had included a course in citizenship and encouragement to

push out into the United States. . To do what ought to be done disturbs many indurated interests with great genius to oppose. Many of these could ably help, and ought to help in the wider purpose.

As an Indian Sees Us




lection money in white man's church; and our medicine men just like your prophet; when we get sick we go to him and he pray to our gods for us and we get well; and he pray for rain just as you do in church; and that medicine man have dream and vision and get revelation from gods just like your prophet. Now we think our way just as good as yours."

The faces of my interviewers were immo

HE interpreter's Indian wife, Baker is

a half-blood-had brought in a saucer

of tipsin roots. Dried and crisp, they can be eaten like crackers. I had helped myself and was opening my tablet to take dictation, when the cabin door opened. Indians do not knock.

I looked up,—three Indians stalked in. "How!" they said; speech followed with the interpreter. It is impolite to interrupt conversation among Indians. I waited.

The Indians took thairs along the wall. Baker spoke:

“This man want to ask to you one question !" "Say on!” said I. It pays to humor a red man when you want dictation.

"Where you white men came from?"

"From Germany,—or our fathers did.” I added quite a bit of Saxon history. Indians are patient listeners.

"We not mean that; who made you?"

"God," I answered; the question seemed easy.

"How you know?"

"From the Bible, God's revelation," I said, with real reverence.

"How you know that for true?-how God make that revelation?"

“In different ways. By dreams and visions to men we call prophets; by the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.”

"How you know He Son of God ?"

"Because He worked miracles and raised Himself from the dead," I answered.

"Very well; now you tell us why our way not as good as white way! We had our gods, just as white men have their God; we not have Bible for we not know how to read, but we have old men in tribe that tell oli tales, and things what we must do that they learn from their fathers; and we pay them,robes, blankets, gun, lots of thing, just as col

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German forests! They did not scalp their enemies, but they drank wine from cups made from their dead foemen's skulls. Because these men believed Jesus Christ was the Son of God and became Christians, you Indians are living today. The number of consistent Christians even among white people, may not be very large; but it is their influence that has saved reservations to you, given you plows and cattle, built your schools and provided rations for your old people. If my ancestors hadn't become Christians, there wouldn't be a red skin alive today in America; they woula have bayoneted you folk off the earth!"

I spoke with a little heat.

The gleam of humor fled, and the faces became grave. One of the Indians spoke a few words to the interpreter; all arose and quietly left the cabin.

“What did they say, Baker?" I asked.

"They say, 'Tell Mr. Wilson what he say about Christian very true. He not need to tell us that,--we Indians, we all know that.”

Hadatsa Indian Weaving a Doll for the Baby. Sive on earth, that He taught He was the Son of God, and that men believed Him. I know what my ancestors were like, -savages in the

Transformation and Trophies

After Fifty Years

Among the Dakotas



T was a sultry day in August, 1862. I was

sitting in the hotel of a little town in

central Ohio, whither I had gone in search of a helpmeet in my mission work among the Sioux Indians in Minnesota. The Civil War was at its height. So when a Cincinnati daily was Alung on the table I seized it greedily, but forgot all about my friends at the South when my eye caught the big headlines: “Horrible Massacre by the Sioux. 500 Whites Butchered. Redwood Agency Destroyed."

Redwood Agency was where I had been preaching for two years. A little white church building, and lumber for a one-room manse, were there by my efforts. Forty miles west my father, Rev. T. S. Williamson, M.D., was located; and further on a few miles was Rev.

S. R. Riggs, D.D., each with their families. At each of the three points was a little church organization of Indians numbering in all about 60 members. Such was the visible fruit of 27 years of missionary work.

I was back in Minnesota as soon as possible. I found the horrible tales that I read as I went, though distorted, too true. Through the fidelity of the converts no life in any mission family was lost. It was the most terrible massacre ever committed by Indians. Nevertheless, if the grievances of the Indians, which led to the massacre, were narrated as the Indians then felt them, it would lighten much the dark hue of the blood-stains. Only eternity will reveal God's judgments in the case. A few weeks, however, were sufficient to show He had a providence therein.

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